The Cold War – Rivalry for Global Supremacy 1945-1962 The Khrushchev Era: • Stalin dies 1953 and is replaced by Nikita Krushchev by 1956. • De-Stalinization of the Soviet Union - Krushchev denounces Stalin’s authoritarian rule – encourages Eastern bloc to resist Soviet control in general. • Peaceful Co-existance: there are two different social systems but socialism would win through non-violent transition, not by war or violent revolution.
The Cold War – Liberation Movements! Polish and Hungarian Unrest: • Poland 1956: riots protesting Soviet economic and political domination. • Agreement that Poland will receive some domestic autonomy but adhere to Soviet foreign policy • Hungary 1956: demand for liberalization of the economy. 1956 – demonstrations happen – Imre Nagy becomes the Prime Minister. • Nagy promises free elections and withdrawl from the Warsaw Pact. • USSR cannot allow it – 5000 Soviet tanks attack. • Nagy is overthrown and a new Communist government is set up. • recognition by the USA that Hungary was in the Soviet Sphere of influence.
The Cold War – Rivalry for Global Supremacy 1945-1962 Berlin: Tension Builds • 1958 – 2 million East Germans had fled to the West from East Germany: “Brain Drain” – skilled workers or highly trained professionals. • Krushcev wanted the West out of Berlin - West refuses August 1961 – East and west Berlin are cut off after 103, 000 East Germans poured into W. Germany in the first 6 months of 1961. • The Berlin Wall replaces the barbed wire.
The Cold War – Rivalry for Global Supremacy 1945-1962 Cuban Missile Crisis • Fidel Castro gains power in 1959. • 1960 Cuba and the Soviet Union sign a $100 million trade agreement. • 1961 Cuban emigres attack Cuba at the Bay of Pigs and are defeated. • 1962 – American U-2 flights photograph medium-range ballistic missiles sites. • Kennedy decides they must quarantine Cuba. • Compromise: Cuban missiles for Turkish missiles. USA would remove quarantine and promise not to invade Cuba. • Diplomacy averted a nuclear war and jump started nuclear negotiations regarding testing 1963-Partial Test Ban Treaty.