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Beginning of the Cold War

Beginning of the Cold War

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Beginning of the Cold War

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  1. Beginning of the Cold War Post-WW2 America 1945-1960

  2. 1945-1960 Foreign Policy

  3. Reasons for the Cold War • Mistrust between US & USSR: • US invasion of Russia in 1918-19 • USSR ignored by the US (1917-33) • Communism –vs- Capitalism/Democracy • Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (1939) • Delayed invasion of Western Europe • Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe

  4. Where was the Cold War fought? • All over the world: • China • Korea • Vietnam • Central America • South America • Africa • Middle East

  5. How did the USSR maintain control of Eastern Europe? • Soviet Red Army occupied all of E. Europe • One-party “elections” • intimidation

  6. Cold War • 1945-1990 • Period of increasing tensions (short of war) between the US and the USSR

  7. Containment Policy • The US policy of allowing the USSR to keep any gains, but not allowing them to gain any more • Developed by George Kennan in his “Long Telegram”

  8. Cold War Leaders Truman Eisenhower

  9. Cold War Leaders Stalin Khrushchev

  10. Iron Curtain • The dividing line between communist Eastern Europe and democratic Western Europe during the Cold War

  11. The Iron Curtain

  12. Satellite Nations • The Soviet-dominated nations of Eastern Europe

  13. Satellite Nations

  14. Truman Doctrine • An extension of the Containment Policy • Truman’s policy of helping any country wanting to break free of domination by another and move towards democracy

  15. Marshall Plan • An extension of the Containment Policy • Developed by Sec. of State George Marshall • Gave $12.5 to $13 billion in economic aid to European countries to rebuild their economies after WWII • Rationale?

  16. Main goal(s) of the Marshall Plan: • Rebuild Western Europe • Stop the spread of communism into Western Europe • Was it successful?

  17. Secretary of StateGeorge C. Marshall

  18. Division of Germany

  19. Division of Germany • US Zone • British Zone • Soviet Zone • French Zone • The US, British, and French Zones combine to form West Germany in 1948 (Bonn-capital) • The Soviet Zone becomes East Germany

  20. Berlin Divided • Berlin was located inside the Soviet Zone • It was divided as well: • The US, British, Soviet, and French sectors • US, British, and French combine to form West Berlin • Soviet sector becomes East Berlin (capital)

  21. Berlin Blockade • democratic West Berlin was inside communist East Germany • Stalin wanted non-communists out of East Germany • USSR cut-off all ground/water access to Berlin

  22. Berlin Airlift • The US, British, and French airlifted food, coal, and supplies to the people of West Berlin • Stalin eventually failed and ended the blockade

  23. Two Germanys • The US, British, and French combined their occupation zones to create West Germany • The USSR created East Germany out of their occupation zone

  24. NATO (1949) • Mutual Defense alliance • Protect Western Europe from Soviet invasion • US, Canada, GB, France, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Luxembourg, Iceland • Eventually 16 countries joined during the Cold War

  25. Warsaw Pact • Soviet response to NATO • USSR and satellite nations • Mutual defense treaty

  26. CIA & KGB • Central Intelligence Agency • US information-gathering (spy) agency • Created in 1947 • KGB • Soviet spy agency

  27. Who was fighting in the Chinese Civil War (1920s-1937 and 1945-49)? • The Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-Shek • The Communists, led by Mao Zedong

  28. Mao Zedong & Chiang Kai-shek

  29. Who won and when? • The Communists • 1949

  30. Why did the Commies win? • Lack of popular support for Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists because: • Rice tax increased the price of rice 10,000% • Rent tax in the cities increased • Poor treatment of Chinese population • Communists treated the people well • Punished landlords • Redistributed land

  31. What role did the US play? • US supported the Nationalists • US provided the Nationalists with $20 billion in: food, supplies, and military equipment.

  32. Why was Truman blamed? • Republicans and Democrats blamed him for not doing more to stop the Communists from taking over. • More $$$ could have been spent • More military supplies could have been sent • US military could have intervened

  33. Results of the Chinese Revolution • Communists win in 1949 • Nationalists flee to Taiwan (two Chinas)

  34. United Nations • Created in 1945 to replace the League of Nations • US joined • Has a military force to back-up resolutions • Security Council and General Assembly

  35. Division of Korea • Japanese controlled Korea until 1945 • Korea divided at the 38th Parallel • USSR occupied northern Korea • Set-up a communist gov’t • Kim Il Sung • US occupied southern Korea • Set-up a non-communist gov’t • Syngman Rhee

  36. Korean War • US and USSR leave Korea in 1949 • North Korea invades South Korea in June 1950 • US and UN forces help South Korea push back North Korean forces • China helps North Korea • War lasts three years

  37. Korean Leaders Kim Il Sung Syngman Rhee

  38. Gen. Douglas MacArthur • Commander of all UN Forces in Korea (1950-51) Fired by Truman • MacArthur was openly critical of the Commander-in-Chief • Truman fires MacArthur for insubordination • Gen. Matthew Ridgeway (1951-52) • Gen. Mark Clark (1952-53)

  39. Effect on Truman’s Presidency • Unpopular war • Truman –vs- MacArthur split the country • Many saw the US/UN as not fighting to win • Truman decides not to run again in 1952 • Eisenhower wins in 1952

  40. Korean War

  41. Result of the war • Cease-fire in 1953 • State of war still exists today • Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) divides the Korean peninsula • 33,000+ US lives lost (many POWs unaccounted for) • Millions of Koreans and Chinese killed

  42. Massive Retaliation • Eisenhower’s response to any nuclear attack on the US • If the USSR uses one, we will use all of ours • Later called MAD Policy

  43. Brinkmanship • The willingness to go to the brink of nuclear war to achieve a goal • Started under Eisenhower

  44. Pre-Castro Cuba • US-backed dictator Fulgencio Batista • Mafia ran casinos, prostitution, and gambling • Cuban people were poor & uneducated • Castro & rebels conduct a guerrilla war against Batista’s Army in the late 1950s • Jan. 1, 1959: Batista flees & Castro marches into Havana a hero • Castro quickly announces alignment with the USSR • JFK cuts-off relations in 1961

  45. Cuban Leaders Fulgencio Batista Fidel Castro