CHAPTER 2: Early River Valley Civilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C. City-States in Mesopotamia SECTION 1 SECTION 2 Pyramids on the Nile Planned Cities on the Indus SECTION 3 River Dynasties in China SECTION 4
Early River Valley Civilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C. Civilizations emerge and develop on fertile river plains in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and China. Solid gold sarcophagus containing the organs of Pharaoh Tutankhamen, Eighteenth Dynasty, Egypt.
SECTION 2PYRAMIDS ON THE NILE • Using mathematical knowledge and engineering skills, Egyptians build magnificent monuments to honor dead rulers.
Section 4 River Dynasties in China Early rulers introduce ideas about government and society that shape Chinese civilization. NEXT
SECTION 4 River Dynasties in China The Geography of China Map Barriers Isolate China • Ocean, mountains, deserts isolate China from other areas River Systems • Huang He (“Yellow River”) in north, Yangtze in south • Huang He leaves loess—fertile silt—when it floods Image Environmental Challenges • Huang He floods can devour whole villages • Geographic isolation means lack of trade; must be self-sufficient China’s Heartland • North China Plain, area between two rivers, center of civilization NEXT
SECTION 4 Civilization Emerges in Shang Times The First Dynasties • Around 2000 B.C. cities arise; Yu, first ruler of Xia Dynasty • Yu’s flood control systems tames Huang He (“Yellow River”) • Shang Dynasty, 1700 to 1027 B.C., first to leave written records Early Cities • Built cities of wood, such as Anyang—one of its capital cities • Upper class lives inside city; poorer people live outside • Shang cities have massive walls for military defense NEXT
SECTION 4 The Development of Chinese Culture Chinese Civilization • Sees China as center of world; views others as uncivilized • The group is more important than the individual Family • Family is central social institution; respect for parents a virtue • Elder males control family property • Women expected to obey all men, even sons Social Classes • King and warrior-nobles lead society and own the land Continued . . . NEXT
SECTION 4 continued The Development of Chinese Culture Religious Beliefs • Spirits of dead ancestors can affect family fortunes • Priests scratch questions on animal bones and tortoise shells • Oracle bones used to consult gods; supreme god, Shang Di Image Development of Writing • Writing system uses symbols to represent syllables; not ideas • People of different languages can use same system • Huge number of characters make system difficult to learn Chart NEXT
SECTION 4 Zhou and the Dynastic Cycle The Zhou Take Control • In 1027 B.C., Zhou Dynasty takes control of China Map Mandate of Heaven • Mandate of Heaven—the belief that a just ruler had divine approval • Developed as justification for change in power to Zhou • Dynastic cycle—pattern of the rise and decline of dynasties Control Through Feudalism • Feudalism—system where kings give land to nobles in exchange for services • Over time, nobles grow in power and begin to fight each other Continued . . . NEXT
SECTION 4 continued Zhou and the Dynastic Cycle Improvements in Technology and Trade • Zhou Dynasty builds roads, canals to improve transportation • Uses coins to make trade easier • Produces cast iron tools and weapons; food production increases Image A Period of Warring States • Peaceful, stable Zhou empire rules from around 1027 to 256 B.C. • In 771 B.C., nomads sack the Zhou capital, murder monarch • Luoyang becomes new capital; but internal wars destroy traditions NEXT
Section 4 The Unification of China The social disorder of the warring states contributes to the development of three Chinese ethical systems. NEXT
SECTION 4 The Unification of China Confucius and the Social Order Zhou Dynasty • Lasted 1027 to 256 B.C.; ancient values decline near end of dynasty Confucius Urges Harmony • End of Zhou Dynasty is time of disorder • Scholar Confucius wants to restore order, harmony, good government • Stresses developing good relationships, including family • Promotes filial piety—respect for parents and ancestors • Hopes to reform society by promoting good government Image Image Continued . . . NEXT
SECTION 4 continued Confucius and the Social Order Confucian Ideas About Government • Thinks education can transform people • Teachings become foundation for bureaucracy, a trained civil service • Confucianism is an ethical system of right and wrong, not a religion • Chinese government and social order is based on Confucianism NEXT
SECTION 4 Other Ethical Systems Daoists Seek Harmony • Laozi teaches that people should follow the natural order of life • Believes that universal force called Dao guides all things • Daoism philosophy is to understand nature and be free of desire • Daoists influence sciences, alchemy, astronomy, medicine Image Legalists Urge Harsh Rule • Legalism emphasizes the use of law to restore order; stifles criticism • Teaches that obedience should be rewarded, disobedience punished Continued . . . NEXT
SECTION 4 continued Other Ethical Systems I Ching and Yin and Yang • I Ching (The Book of Changes) offers good advice, common sense • Concept of yin and yang—two powers represent rhythm of universe • Yin: cold, dark, soft, mysterious; yang: warm, bright, hard, clear • I Ching and yin and yang explain how people fit into the world Image NEXT
SECTION 4 The Qin Dynasty Unifies China The Qin Dynasty • Qin Dynasty replaces Zhou Dynasty in third century B.C. A New Emperor Takes Control • Emperor Shi Huangdi unifies China, ends fighting, conquers new lands • Creates 36 administrative districts controlled by Qin officials • With legalist prime minister, murders Confucian scholars, burns books • Establishes an autocracy, a government with unlimited power Image Continued . . . NEXT
SECTION 4 continued The Qin Dynasty Unifies China A Program of Centralization • Shi Huangdi builds highways, irrigation projects; increases trade • Sets standards for writing, law, currency, weights and measures • Harsh rule includes high taxes and repressive government Great Wall of China • Emperor forces peasants to build Great Wall to keep out invaders Image The Fall of the Qin • Shi Huangdi’s son loses the throne to rebel leader; Han Dynasty begins NEXT
______ ________ The history of Chinese dynasties have been bloody with power hungry rulers. They were known to even kill their relatives as in the case of the emperor Shi Huangdi. Most emperors were set on uniting all of China, and though some did, it came with the cost of human life. Though many rulers had different views, the different dynasties each contributed to what China is today.
______ ________ __ ___ __ Throughout Chinese history, there were many dynasties and rulers. Two dynasties in particular made a great impact on Chinese life. These dynasties were the Qin and the Han. Despite the fact that they were both successful empires, they were governed very differently and had different belief systems. The way the empires were run made a great difference to the extent and length of their success. The Qin believed in a Legalistic way of ruling, and the Han taught Confucianism. Though both dynasties added greatly to what China would become, the Han endured longer.
__ ______ • The first emperor of the Qin Dynasty named himself Shi Huangdi, which literally means “First Emperor.” • Shi Huangdi created an autocracy in China • Autocracy – Government has unlimited power • Under the Emperor’s rule peasants were forced to work against their will • Huangdi cost his people their freedom in order to unite China
__ ______ _____ _____ • The Qin put into action a Legalist form of government Legalist rulers would reward people who did what they were supposed to do, and do it well They would severely punish people who were disobedient
__ ______ ________ • The Qin divided their territory up into 36 commanderies (click here for a list of the Qin commanderies) • Commanderies – A province • Each commandery was divided into smaller counties • Had peasants build a network of highways through China
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__ ______ ______ _________ • Built the Great Wall of China • Built by thousands of peasants • Built with earth, stones, and wood frames • The Great Wall is a set of walls, not one complete structure • Later modifications were made during the Ming Dynasty • Built to keep enemies out and the Chinese people in
__ ______ ______ _________ • Established Chinese: Writing Law • Currency • Created irrigation projects and systems Huangdi’s terra-cotta army • Before Huangdi died, he built an elaborate tomb guarded by over 6,000 terra-cotta warriors