BELLRINGER READ AND ANALYZE: page 154 “Western and Eastern Europe” Map • Were there more countries in Western Europe or Eastern Europe? • Which Eastern European countries bordered Western Europe?
CHAPTER 5: Europe – Modern History Section 2: A Divided Continent I. The Cold War A. The global competition between the Democratic United States and its allies and the Communist Soviet Union and its supporters came to be called the Cold War. B. The Cold War was a dangerous time because both sides had nuclear weapons.
Under the Marshall Plan, the United States lent money to help rebuild Europe and try to stop the spread of communism.
GROUP WORK: DISCUSSION QUESTION • What specific things happened under the Marshall Plan?
ANSWER • Factories were rebuilt, mines were reopened, and roads were repaired and replaced. The economies of Western Europe - those countries liberated and occupied by the United States and Great Britain during World War II - began to grow.
B. Western Europe Cooperates • In 1948, under the Truman Doctrine, the United States offered military aid to countries such as Greece and Turkey, that were fighting communism inside their borders.
In 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed to respond to possible attacks by the Soviet Union. • Each member of NATO agreed to treat an attack on any other member as an attack on itself. • This policy is known as deterrence.
In 1948 the small countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg joined together to form the Benelux trade union, an arrangement for the free movement of money, goods, and people among these nations. • The Benelux countries were later joined by West Germany, France, and Italy to form the European Economic Community (or Common Market). • Other countries joined this organization, which is now known as the European Union.
GROUP WORK: DISCUSSION QUESTION What were the agreements of the Common Market?
ANSWER • The members agreed to free trade among themselves. Workers from one country could take jobs in any of the other countries.
C. Soviets Control Eastern Europe • In Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union made satellite nations of those countries bordering it. • Satellite nations are dependent upon a stronger power.
The satellite nations of the Soviet Union were Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and East Germany, which all became communist and members of theCouncil for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECOM). • In 1955 the Soviet Union formed its satellites into an anti-Western military alliance known as the Warsaw Pact.
GROUP WORK: DISCUSSION QUESTION What was the Non-Aligned Community?
ANSWER • During the Cold War, Yugoslavia joined a number of Asian and African countries to form the Non-Aligned Community. Its members tried to stay neutral - to not support either side - during the Cold War.
D. Freedom for Eastern Europe • The economies of the Soviet Union and its satellites fell further and further behind the United States and Western Europe. • In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev introduced reforms to stimulate the Soviet economy.
He loosened government control over the Soviet people and satellites. • One of the most important effects of the fall of Communism was the destruction of the Berlin Wall in Germany.
GROUP WORK: DISCUSSION QUESTION: • What were some of the reforms introduced by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev?
ANSWER • To encourage economic growth, Gorbachev loosened government control over the Soviet people and the satellite nations.
EXIT STRATEGY How did each of the following events intensify the Cold War?