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Types of Societies

Types of Societies

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Types of Societies

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  1. Types of Societies

  2. Important Vocabulary • Group- a set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity • Subsistence Strategies- the way a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members

  3. A. Preindustrial Societies 1. In a preindustrial society, food 2. These societies can be subdivided according to their level of technology and their method of producing food.

  4. 3. These subdivisions are hunting and gathering, pastoral, horticultural, and agricultural.

  5. A. Hunting and Gathering Societies

  6. 1. The main form of food production in hunting and gathering societies is the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals. • 2. People in these societies move around constantly in search of food. • 3. There are no permanent villages, and no wide variety of artifacts. • 4. Consist of 60 to 100 people • 5. Statures are equal, and decisions made with general agreement. • 6. Family forms the main social unit.

  7. B. Pastoral Societies • A society that relies on domesticated herd animals to meet food needs. • This group is nomadic people • Larger populations as a result of a more reliable food source. • Division of labor becomes more complex.

  8. C. Horticultural Societies • A society that has fruits and vegetables grown on plots of land that have been cleared for such a purpose as a way of meeting food needs. • Slash and burn methods are used to grow crops.

  9. When a plot of land becomes barren, a new plot is cleared to let the original restores itself. • Rotating gardens allows a horticultural society stay in one area for a long period of time. • There are specialized roles in this life. • Specialization leads to a wide variety of artifacts, as well as inequality of wealth

  10. D. Agricultural Societies • A society where animals are used to pull plows that till the fields • This innovation allows agricultures to plant more food than when human labor is not available. • Irrigation and terracing are used. • High crop yields allow for large populations. • This specialization leads to the creation of large cities.

  11. Leaders of such societies tend to build armies to product the interests of agricultural people. • Barter is abandoned, and money is used as a medium of exchange. • These societies foster sharp differences in status • There are two groups within this society • A. Landowner- Controls the wealth • B. Peasant- provides the labor

  12. B. Industrial Societies • In these societies, the emphasis changes from focus on food, to the production of manufactured goods. • The bulk of production is carried out by machines. • Industrialization affects population by increasing the amount of food that can be produced. • Industrialization reduces the demand for agricultural laborers.

  13. Industrialization changes the location of work from home to work. • This change leads to urbanization, or the concentration of the population in cities. • Industrialization also changes the role of institutions in society. • A positive effect of industrialization is that it brings about more freedoms to compete for social position. • A. People have more control over their position in life.

  14. C. Postindustrial Societies • A society in which much of the economy is involved with providing information and services. • Many significant social changes occur here. • A. The standard of living • B. Quality of life. 3. Strong emphasis on the roles of science and education in society • 4. Rights of individuals and search for personal fulfillment are also of importance.

  15. Trade is encouraged. • Inequality is achieved as a result of trade allowing for some to become more wealthy. • Hereditary chieftainship is the typical form of government.