Licensing for Next Generation Signalling Buddhadev Dutta Chowdhury 27th April 2012
Competence and Competency • Competency needs to respond to: • Organisational Changes • Emerging Technologies • Change in Project Lifecycle • Change in Operation and Maintenance Regime • Competency Models
IRSE Licence IRSE Licensing - Competency benchmarking across the supply chain - Based on International Standard for Personal Certification ISO 17024 - Covers a wide range: Design, Installation, Testing, Project Engineering and Technical - Is this adequate for future trends on signalling? - We may have to adapt some competency frameworks.
Signalling Evolution Mechanical Interlocking Electro-Mechanical Systems Relay Interlocking Solid State Interlocking Computer Based Interlocking Communication Based Train Control
Change in contractual Arrangements • Previous signalling contracts specified products • Client owned the system • New contracts do not specify technical requirements. Instead they require performance-related criteria, such as: • Journey Time Capability • Reliability • Whole lifecycle cost • Clients endorse the system • Supplier owns the design of the system
Complexity of Systems • Combined effort to achieve performance • Performance requirements apportionment • Knowledge and understanding of all the key disciplines: • Signalling • Telecommunications • Rolling Stock • Control System • Traction • Traffic Control • Simulation techniques
Train-borne signalling • Design competency • Testing Competency • Maintenance Competency • First Line Maintenance • Second Line Maintenance • Third Line Maintenance Rolling stock and Signalling systems integration are increasing in complexity.
Signalling systems (hardware & Software) Moving towards common hardware platform. Software modifications to fulfil contract requirements are the main areas of change for new projects. Data modifications and preparation are required depending on the geographical layouts and constraints of the railway.
Software Reliability • Assess qualitative failures • Dependent on robustness • Failure Rates: • Capability Maturity Model • Number of Lines of Code • Environmental Parameters • Decrease through Testing Process • DRACAS • Data Management
Data Preparation Systems configured by data Significant testing in factory prior to being released on site This is either software or data or a combination of both Common hardware platform with digital/serial/radio I/O Geographical data/map on trains or wayside No traditional relay interlocking
Embedded Software & SIL Levels • Embedded software • Extra complexity • Extra functionality • Safety Integrity level • Rolling Stock • Signalling
Communication Knowledge and Understanding Transmission theory Security + robustness + coding + signal processing Network architecture Interfaces, EMC
Voice Operation Comms Distributed mobile / fixed comms Routing Talk groups Network architecture Coding – real time Signal processing
Tools Computer for software interfaces Radio testing platforms Antenna Bespoke preparation tools based on the suppliers products. V&V tools System integration platforms (simulators/ emulators) Compliers (with high integrity levels)
Systems approach • Total railway approach is required. • Data and software from non-signalling systems may be critical. • Interfaces are no longer only voltage free contacts but complex data channels. • Examples include: • Information to/from other train systems (TMS, ATO, Brake controllers / traction controllers) • Interfaces to/from other wayside systems (Comms, ATS systems, passenger information etc)
Reliability Availability Maintainability Fundamental Principle of RAM analysis Domain experience of signalling Adopt Systems Engineering approach Failure data apportioned to signalling
Engineering Safety Hazard identification, log and management Interface hazard analysis SIL assessment / Tolerable hazard rates
Safety Case Evidence of quality management Evidence of safety management Evidence of functional and technical safety
Issues of Overview Specification Communication with other discipline / stake holders Visualisation of complete system Partitioning of the systems and apportionment
Regulatory & Guidance Documents • Railway and Other guided Transport Systems (Safety) Regulations (ROGS) • Company standards • Network Rail standards • London Underground Standards • ORR Guidance • Regulations • Yellow Book
What we need Structured approach to competence management process Knowledge and understanding of functionality, architecture and interfaces including impacts on the other systems.
Conclusion Through knowledge of total operation and engineering systems Proven ability to the company business An understanding of rail industries Practical, commercial, financial management awareness and ability A defined roots for professional development