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Diabetes

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  1. Diabetes U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Project Pan American Health Organization U.S. Mexico Border Field Office (915) 845-5950 decosio@fep.paho.org/ruizrosa@fep.paho.org

  2. Diabetes definition Metabolic disorder of multiple etiology (causes) characterized by hyperglycemia with carbohydrates, fat, and protein metabolic alterations that result in defects in the secretion of insulin, its action or both.

  3. What is diabetes? • The majority of intake of food is converted into glucose. • The pancreas produces the insulin hormone, which help the organism to take advantage of glucose. • In persons with diabetes, the insulin does not work. Therefore, the sugar and the fat increase in the blood.

  4. Symptoms of diabetes • Polyuria (urinating frequently) • Polydipsia (very thirsty) • Weight loss

  5. Other diabetes symptoms • Continuos hunger • Fatigue • Dry skin • Frequent infections • Feet ulceration • Loss of sensibility in inferior extremities (legs)

  6. Types of diabetes • Type 1 • No production of insulin • Initiates in childhood or adolescence • Type 2 • Deficient production or improper utilization of insulin • Generally initiates after 30 years of age

  7. Risk factors

  8. Risk factors • Family history of diabetes • Older than 30 years of age • Lack of physical activity • Sedentarism ( person with little or no physical activity) • Poor diet • Excessive weight

  9. Risk factors • Lack of knowledge on the disease • No health care access • Consumption of alcohol and drugs • Smoking • Cultural myths

  10. Diabetes complications • Retinopathy (blindness?) • Nephropathy (kidney problems) • Feet ulceration and/or amputations • Hypertension • Hyperlipidemia (cholesterol?) • Gestational diabetes (during pregnancy) • Diabetes and HIV

  11. Diabetes complications

  12. Diagnosis • Symptoms • (suggest possible diabetes) • High glucose in blood • (confirm if higher than 126 mg/dl) • Glucose in hemoglobin • (indicates quality of diabetes control - higher than 7 mmol)

  13. Treatment and control • Medications • (insulin vs. hypoglycaemic agents) • Increase physical activity • at least walk for 30 min. most days • Appropriate diet • vegetables • fruit • low in fat and carbohydrates • Lifestyle changes

  14. Prevention and/or delay of diabetes complications • Well balanced diet • Exercise • Medications when appropriate • Timely access to health care services • No tobacco • No alcohol

  15. Tips for healty cooking • Cook or boil meat insted of frying • Take the skin of chicken before cooking • Use less salt and sugar when preparing food • Avoid fat

  16. Tips for healty cooking • Use fresh or frozen fruit and vegetables when eating or in between meals • Use low fat chesse instead of regular chesse • Use low fat milk • Drink fruit juice instead of powder juice

  17. Nutritional Pyrimid CDC Webpage

  18. Physical Activity • To control diabetes the recommendation is to increase physical activity, preferably every day for 20 minutes.

  19. Physical Activity • Benefits: • Lowers glucose levels in blood • Improves blood circulation in the entire body • Contributes to weight loss • Improves physical and mental wellbeing • Helps the body to utilize insulin more efficiently

  20. Physical Activity • Consult your doctor before you start a physical activity program • Start you program slowly and increase activity level gradually • You can choose the physical activity that that you like to do