Types Of Hardware & Software Prof. Sujata Rao Session 2
Types of Computer • Grid Computer • Super Computer • Mainframes • Mini Computer • Microcomputer • Terminal Embedded Computer
Super Grids • Made by universities and the military • Virginia Tech with 1100 Apple G5 dual processors • other clusters of less powerful machines with Linux special OSs for parallel processing.
Super Computer CDC 6600 designed by Seymour Cray (First commercially successful supercomputer-speed of 9 megaflops)
Supercomputers Cray Research-CRAY I vector architecture (designed by Seymour Cray, shaped the computer industry for years to come), Cray 1 - 1976 (courtesy Cray Inc.)
Thinking Machines The Connection Machine, as this model is called, contains 64,000 CPUs
Players in the supercomputing arena • Few players in the supercomputing arena: • Cray • Dell • HP • IBM • NEC • SGI • Sun
Companies • IBM 3090 VPF.Evans • Sutherland ES-1, • Fujitsu VP-400E, • NSFnet established Apollo, Ardent, and Stellar Graphics Supercomputers, • Hitachi S-820/80, Hypercube simulation on a LAN at ORNL,CRAY Y-MP, • Tim Berners-Lee: World Wide Web project at CERN • Seymour Cray: Founds Cray Computer Corp.-Begins CRAY 3 using gallium arsenide chips • Bell Labs - Optical Processors • Intell - Paralell Processors
Mainframe • Mainframe is an industry term for a large computer. • The name comes from the way the machine is build up • All units (processing, communication etc.) were hung into a frame. Thus the main computer is build into a frame, therefore: Mainframe
Mainframes Eniac (1946) Mark I mainframe (1950's) BINAC(1960's)
Colossus - Vacuum tube computer Colossus - The British vacuum tube computer
ENIAC Eniac (electronic numerical integrator and calculator ) • thirty separate units, • plus power supply and forced-air cooling, • weighed over thirty tons. • It had 19,000 vacuum tubes, • 1,500 relays, • hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors which consumed almost 200 kilowatts of electrical power.
Mark I -1944 1st stored-program digital computer.
MARK - II 1947 Harvard Mark II (Magnetic Drum Storage )
The UNIVAC - 1950 • processed each digit serially. • But its much higher design speed permitted it to add two ten-digit numbers at a rate of almost 100,000 additions per second Internally. • It was the first mass-produced computer. • The central complex of the UNIVAC was about the size of a one-car garage: 14 feet by 8 feet by 8.5 feet high.
The UNIVAC - 1950 • The vacuum tubes generated an enormous amount of heat, so a high capacity chilled water and blower air conditioning system was required to cool the unit. • The complete system had • 5200 vacuum tubes, • weighed 29,000 pounds, • and consumed 125 kilowatts of electrical power.
IBM 704 - 1955 • It was the first large-scale commercially available computer system to employ fully automatic floating point arithmetic commands. • It was a large-scale, electronic digital computer used for solving • complex scientific, engineering and business problems • was the firstIBM machine to use FORTRAN. The 704 and the 705 were the first commercial machines with core memories.
IBM 705 • Developed primarily to handle business data, • it could multiply numbers as large as one billion at a rate of over 400 per second. • The 705 was credited with "Forty thousand or twenty thousand characters of high-speed magnetic core storage;” • Any one of the characters in magnetic core storage can be located or transferred in 17 millionths of a second; • Any one of these characters was individually addressable.
The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine was IBM's first commercially available scientific computer and the first IBM machine in which • programs were stored in an internal- addressable electronic memory. • It was the first of the pioneering line of IBM 700 series mainframe computers, including the 702, 704, 705 and 709.
Configuration of the IBM 700 Series • two tape units (each with two tape drives), • a magnetic drum memory unit, • a cathode-ray tube storage unit, • an L-shaped arithmetic and control unit with an operator's panel, • a card reader, • a printer, • a card punch and three power units. • The 701 could perform more than 16,000 addition or subtraction operations a second, • read 12,500 digits a second from tape, print 180 letters or numbers a second, and output 400 digits a second from punched-cards.
2nd Generation Computer • The IBM 1401 is called the Model T of the computer business, because it is the first mass-produced digital, all-transistorized, business computer that was afforded by many businesses worldwide. • The basic 1401 was about 5 feet high and 3 feet across. • It comes with 4,096 characters of memory( 4KB) • The memory is 6-bit (plus 1 parity bit) CORE memory,
made out of little metal donuts strung on a wire mesh at IBM factories. • The 1401 has an optional Storage Expansion Unit which expanded the core storage to an amazing 16K. • The 1401 processing unit can perform 193,300 additions of eight-digit numbers in one minute. • The monthly rental for a 1401 is $2,500 and up, depending on the configuration. • In the mid-1960s, more than 10,000 system were in the market and by 1971 IBM started withdrawing these system .
operating system which occupied about 8K of the 1107's 32K of memory. • The machine was intended to support true multiprogramming: • sharing CPU time among several batch runs.
Manufacturers • Amdahl, • Burroughs, • CDC • Cray, • Fujitsu, • Hitachi, • Hewlett Packard, • IBM, • Intel, • NEC, • SGI, • Sun, • Texas Instruments, • Thinking Machines • Univac
Main frame Configuration • A mainframe has 1 to 16 CPU's (modern machines more) • Memory ranges from 128 Mb over 8 Gigabyte on line RAM • Its processing power ranges from 80 over 550 Mips • It has often different cabinets for • Storage • I/O • RAM
Features of the Mainframe • Separate processes (program) for • task management • program management • job management • serialization • catalogs • inter address space • communication
Features Contd… • centralized computing opposite from distributed computing. Meaning all computing takes (physically) place on the mainframe itself: the processor section . • main purpose is to run commercial applications of Fortune 1000 businesses and other large-scale computing purposes.
Features • IBM 360, Burroughs B5000 , HP, CDC, GE • It used a hardware-managed stack for calculation • Extensive use of descriptors for data access. • First computer to include virtual memory • Supported multiprogramming and multiprocessing. • First GE Time-sharing operation • Virtual memory capabilities - increased speed 3 times
First Generation • 1940 - 1952 • Operating Speed - very slow • No O/s • Limited Programming Capabilities • Very Large in Size – difficult to maintain : • Used Vaccum tubes : generated lot of heat • Not very economical :Short life span
Second Generation • 1952 - 1964 • Transistors replaced vacuum tubes • Reduced heat since transistors very small in size and required little power • Increased reliability & speed • Cost reduced
Third Generation • 1964 - 1971 • Advancement in semiconductor technology resulted in Integrated circuits. • Less human labour at assembly stage • Reliability increased • Processing speed increased, • Arithmetic capability increased • Improved means of instruction • Ability to perform parallel operations
Fourth Generation • 1971 onwards • Usage of Large-Scale_Integrated Circuits • Very small in size, portability was easy • User Interface increased • Network Technology introduced – LAN • Commercial computing & online application introduced • Hardware cost and Maintenance was affordable
Fifth Generation • Processor used VLIW- Very Long Instruction Word • Graphic Interface • Wireless Technology introduced • MAN, WAN technology • Size reduced drastically • Supported Two & three tier architecture • COST reduced • Reliability increased with storage & communication technology advancement
Software • System Software • System Management Program • Ex: O/s, Telecommunication Routines • System Support Program • Ex: System Utilities, Security Softwares • System Development program • Programming Languages, Editor Programs, Compilers • Application Software • Software which facilitates business operations & Management decision making • Ex: Payroll, Inventory, Sales/Marketing, Production Planning
Software • Application Software • General Purpose • WORD, EXCELL, POWERPOINT, ORACLE, MSSQL, ACCESS, • Application Specific • FOXPRO, VB, ABAP, ASP • Network Software • Software Synchronizing communication between computers linked in a network • LAN software • Internet Software
Programming Languages Generation • Stored Program Concept - John Von Neumann • EDVAC - First digital computer to have internal programming capacity. • Programs stored in the memory enabled the computer to perform wide range of task. • Sequential & intermittently. • First Generation - No O/s • Program Instructions were done using Machine Language o Assembly Language which was machine dependent.
Programming Languages • Mnemonic Codes: Assembly level Language • FORTRAN : Formula Translation - 1956 • Pascal : Named after Blaise Pascal • COBOL : Common Business Oriented Language - 1960 • BASIC : Beginers All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code • C : 1972 Dennis Ritchie
Program Development Tools • APT ( Automatically Programmed Tool) used for developing numerical controls of Industrial machine tools • GPSS ( General Purpose Simulation System) used for constructing Simulation Models • LISP ( List processing ) used to manipulate Symbols & List in artificial Intelligence. • 4GLs - FOCUS, SQL, dBase, Foxbase • C++ & Small Talk - OOL
Terminologies • Source Program • Object Program • Executable program • Compiler • Translator • ISAM • Line Editors • Page Editors