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  1. MLA v. APA The Showdown

  2. MLA Used in literature, communications, and media The one that English teachers prefer. Ugh. APA Used in medicine, social science, business, psychology, and economics The one you will probably use more in your life. Which style?

  3. Short title and page number in top right hand corner of every page. Full title and writer’s name Course w/ block # , Instructor’s name, and date handed in. Title Page

  4. General Document Rules • Margins: One inch on all sides (Preset) • Font: 12 pt. Times New Roman • Double Space Everything • Spacing: Once after commas, colons, and semicolons in sentence; Twice after punctuation marks at the end of a sentence. • Alignment: Flush Left (Uneven right) • Tense: Past tense • Citation: the page is called References, not Works Cited

  5. Abstract • The Abstract is a self-contained, one paragraph explanation of the most important parts of the paper • It is on page 2 • Heading: "Abstract" (centered on the first line below the running head) • Brief (4 sentences/100 words) • Content: Intro, Methods, Results, & Discussion

  6. Sample Abstract

  7. In-text Citation • The ideas and words of others must be formally acknowledged. • Documentation in-text should be the author and year. • Full citations can be found on the Reference page Some samples…

  8. Authors referenced in sentence • Wirth and Mitchell (1994) found that although there was a reduction in insulin dosage over a period of two weeks in the treatment condition compared to the control condition, the difference was not statistically significant. • [Note:and is used when multiple authors are identified as part of the formal structure of the sentence. Compare this to the example in the following section.]

  9. When authors are not part of the sentence • Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Gartner, Larson, & Allen, 1991). • [Note:& is used when multiple authors are identified in parenthetical material. Note also that when several sources are cited parenthetically, they are ordered alphabetically by first authors' surnames and separated by semicolons.]

  10. If there are two authors, cite both every time.

  11. Three or more authors… • When a source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are included the first time the source is cited. • When that source is cited again, the first author's surname and "et al." are used.  • Consider the following example: • Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991). • Payne et al. (1991) showed that ...

  12. To cite a personal communication (letters, emails, and telephone interviews) • Include initials, surname, and as exact a date as possible.  • Because a personal communication is not "recoverable" information, it is not included in the References section. • For the text citation, use the following format: B. F. Skinner (personal communication, February 12, 1978) claimed ...

  13. Electronic Sources • To cite a Web document, use the author-date format. •  If no author is identified, use the first few words of the title in place of the author.  • If no date is provided, use "n.d." in place of the date. *See examples on next slide…

  14. Electronic Examples • Degelman (2009) summarizes guidelines for the use of APA writing style.Changes in Americans' views of gender status differences have been documented (Gender and Society, n.d.).

  15. References • Begins on a new page • Heading: "References" (centered on the first line below the running head) • References are organized alphabetically by surnames of first author. • The citation makers will format correctly, but for tips, check out: • •

  16. Sample Reference Page

  17. Checklist • The Basics • Font 12 Times New Roman • 1” Margins • Double Spaced • Did you write in the Past Tense? • Pages • Title • Abstract • Body Pages • References • Running Header and page number • Reviewed in-text citations • Reviewed References page (At least 6 sources)

  18. Last Thoughts… • Remember the goal of the assignment is for you to express your opinion on the current state of our society and its current state of isolationism. As budding sociologists, I expect you to use the research material to reflect your opinion. Truly ask yourself, are we isolating oursevles from one another?