Title 14 and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1, 21, 43, 61, 71, and 91
aka “The FARs”
Part 1: Definitions Part 43: Maintenance Part 61: Certification Part 67: Medical Part 71, 73: Airspace Part 91: General Operating Rules
Aircraft Ratings: Categories and Classes (FAR Part 1 and Part 61.5)
Aircraft Ratings: Categories Airplane Rotorcraft Glider Lighter-than-air Powered Lift Powered Parachute Weight-shift-control
Airplane Ratings: Classes Single-Engine, Land Single-Engine, Sea Multi-Engine, Land Multi-Engine, Sea Helicopter Ratings: Classes Helicopter Gyroplane
Part 1: Night – The time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight
Part 1: Flight time – Begins when aircraft moves under its own power for purpose of flight; Ends when aircraft comes to rest after landing
FAR Part 61-3Carry and show that license When flying, must carry:Pilot’s licensePhoto ID (driver’s license, passport, etc.)Medical certificate (Part 61.51 - Solo students must carry logbook with endorsements and solo pilot certificate)
FAR Part 61-3Carry and show that license Must show, on request, to:FAA Administrator (or authorized rep)National Transportation and Safety BoardLaw enforcement officerTransportation Security Administration
FAR Part 61-15Alcohol and drugs Any use in connection with flying or any conviction results in:denial of cert. app for 1 yearsuspension or revocation of existing cert.
FAR Part 61-15Alcohol and drugs Convictions must be reported within 60 days, and must be reported on medical application
FAR Part 61-23Medical Certificates Class I – good for six months, then reverts to Class II (airline pilots) Class II – good for 12 months, then reverts to Class III (Commercial pilots)
FAR Part 61-51Logbooks – “hood time” for IFR recent experience Location and type of approaches Name of safety pilot Per FAR 91.109, the safety pilot musthold private pilot license or above in category and classhave adequate visibility ahead and to both sidesfully functioning controls
FAR Part 61-51Logbooks – actual instrument time “operates aircraft solely by reference to instruments under actual or simulated flight conditions” HOWEVER- “Authorized Instructor may log instrument time when conducting instrument flight instruction in actual instrument flight conditions”
FAR Part 61-56Logbooks – Flight Review Bi-annual (to the end of the 24th month) 1 hour of flight training; 1 hour of ground training Review of Part 91 Review of flight maneuvers appropriate to license OR – accomplish an FAA Wings phase
FAR Part 61-57Logbooks – Recent Flight Experience 3 takeoffs and landings within last 90 days to carry passengers (if in a tailwheeled airplane, must come to a full stop) 3 takeoffs and landings AT NIGHT within last 90 days to carry passengers AT NIGHT (if in a tailwheeled airplane, must come to a full stop) In this case, from one hour after sunset to one hour prior to sunrise.
FAR Part 61-57Logbooks – Recent Instrument Flight Experience Recent instrument flight experience - Within last six months must have flow and logged, in Category: 1. Six instrument approaches2 . Holding3. Intercepting and tracking courses with navigation systems
FAR Part 61-57Logbooks – Recent Instrument Flight Experience If recent instrument flight experience requirements not met within previous six months, must accomplish OR Must fly Instrument Proficiency Check with CFI-I If more than twelve months out of date, must take Instrument Proficiency Check
FAR Part 61-59Logbooks – Falsification of records (applications for certificates, or logbook entries) BAD NEWS Basis for suspension or revocation
FAR Part 61-60Change of address Tell FAA within 30 days or stop flying
FAR Part 61-63Additional ratings (category, class, type) Must get training (and the logbook endorsement) Must pass practical test Do not need to take written test
FAR Part 61- 133Commercial Pilot limitations, without an instrument rating 1. Cannot carry passengers for hire more than 50 miles 2. Cannot carry passengers for hire more at night
FAR Part 91-3:Responsibility of PIC: PIC is directly responsible and is final authority In in-flight emergency, PIC can deviate as required If deviating, shall report in writing to FAA if requested
FAR Part 91-7:Airworthy aircraft: PIC is responsible for ensuring that aircraft is airworthy
FAR Part 91-9:Aircraft manuals and placards: Must operate within limitations set by manuals and placards Must have aircraft manual on board aircraft
FAR Part 91-13:Careless and reckless (the big one): “No person may operate an aircraft in a careless or reckless manner so as to endanger the life or property of another.”
FAR Part 91-17:Drugs and alcohol No drinking within 8 hours of flight Don’t fly under influence No flying with blood level of 0.04 or greater Don’t allow inebriated passengers unless emergency or under medical care Must submit to blood test when requested by law enforcement officers
FAR Part 91-103:Preflight requirements for IFR Familiar with ALL available info, including- Runway lengths, and aircraft takeoff and landing performance If not in vicinity of airport-Weather informationFuel requirementsAlternate airports
FAR Part 91-117:Speed limits: Below 10,000 feet, 250 knots is max At Class C or D airports 200 knots is max (within 4 nautical miles and below 2,500 agl) Below Class B. 200 knots is max Within Class B, 250 is max
FAR Part 91-119:minimum altitudes: Anywhere – must be able to make safe landing in emergency Over congested area – 1,000 feet above within a 2,000 foot radius Over non-congested area – 500 feet above surface Sparsely populated – cannot come within 500 feet
FAR Part 91-121:altimeter settings: At or above 18,000 feet – 29.92 Below 18,000 feet – Current setting at station within 100 nm; OR If not available, setting of any appropriate station IF no radio, elevation of the departure airport or other appropriate altimeter setting before departure.
FAR Part 91-123:Compliance with (deviations from) ATC instructions: Must follow ATC instructions In emergency, may deviate as required – must notify ATC as quickly as possible. When given priority in emergency (even if no deviation), must provide written report within 48 hours if requested
FAR Part 91-157:Special VFR: Must be conducted below 10,000 in airspace boundaries of airport Must have ATC clearance. Must operate clear of clouds with at least one mile visibility. AT NIGHT: Pilot and aircraft must both be IFR capable NOTE: ATC is not allowed to suggest Special VFR – pilot must initiate
FAR Part 91-159:VFR on Top: Must follow ATC instructions Think of this as operating on a VFR flight plan with flight following above a cloud layer. All VFR altitude requirements prevail. A VFR-on-top clearance DOES NOT allow cloud penetrations enroute or for descent. An IFR clearance is still required for these operations.
FAR Part 91-169:Flight plan information: Destination - KSTL Time Enroute – 2 hours 10 minutes Remarks Fuel onboard - 2 hours 40 minutes- MUST BE SUFFICIENT TO GET TO DESTINATION AND ALTERNATE AND HOLD FOR 45 MINUTES 91-167 Pilot’s name, phone nr / home base Chris Hope / 816-763-5205 / KOJC Number on board 2 Color white with red Type of flight plane - IFR Aircraft call sign – Cessna 98765 Aircraft equipment (DME? X-Ponder? GPS?) True airspeed 105 knots Departure point KOJC Departure time 1800 GMT (initial) Altitude 5,500 Route of flight - Direct
FAR Part 91-169:Additional Flight plan information: Alternate Airport required if: Between 1 hour before and 1 hour after arrival (actual or forecast) Ceiling is (will be) less than 2,000 feet OR Visibility is (will be) less than 3 statute miles
FAR Part 91-169:Additional Flight plan information: Forecast weather at alternate at estimated time of arrival: If precision approach is available: 600 – 2 miles If non-precision approach is available: 800-2 miles If no approach is available – allow descent to MEA, and then land under VFR
FAR Part 91-171:VOR Check: Must be checked within the last 30 days (one of the few checks that the pilot can make) Check at an FAA-test station (+ or – 4° accuracy)Check at an FAA designated ground site at airport (+ or – 4° accuracy)Check at an FAA designated airborne check site (+ or – 6° accuracy)Create your own airborne check site ((+ or – 6° accuracy)With 2 VORs, check one against the other (+ or – 4° accuracy) Person making check must log in “log or other record”: Date Place Bearing error If using test station, must have test station certification
FAR Part 91-173:IFR Clearance required: When VFR cloud clearances cannot be maintained in controlled airspace When operating in Class A airspace regardless of weather conditions.
FAR Part 91-177:IFR Minimum altitudes: MEA – Minimum Enroute Altitude guarantees MOCA and MRA MOCA – Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude – 1,000 feet above and 4 miles away from obstructions (2,000 in mountains (guarantees signal coverage only to 22 miles from fix) MRA – Minimum Reception Altitude Off airways? Figure it out
FAR Part 91-183 / 187:IFR Mandatory Radio Calls: Non-radar environment – at each reporting point-time and altitude crossing. Unforecast weather Information relating to in-flight safety, specifically including loss of navigation or communication equipment.
FAR Part 91-185:Loss of two-way communications: Maintain VFR and land if possible; if in IMC- Fly last assigned route ; on vectors, fly to specified fix and then assigned route; if no assigned route, fly “expected” route Fly last assigned altitude and fly at least at MEA / MOCA and last “expected” altitude Fly to clearance limit fix and depart fix at efc time
FAR Part 91-205:Instruments and equipment required day vfr: Airspeed indicatorAltimeterMagnetic compass TachometerTemperature (oil or water)Manifold Pressure (constant speed prop)Fuel gauge Landing gear indicator And depending on date of manufacture: anti-collision lights shoulder harnessIf over water: flotation gear signaling device
FAR Part 91-205:Instruments and equipment requirednight vfr: All of the day stuff, Plus: Position lights Anti-collision lights Landing light, if flown for hire Adequate electrical power for all of this stuff Spare fuses (one full set, or three of each type)