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Three Sections of the Cell PowerPoint Presentation
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Three Sections of the Cell

Three Sections of the Cell

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Three Sections of the Cell

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  1. Three Sections of the Cell • Cell = Basic unit of life • All cells take in food, rid waste, reproduce • 3 main sections • 1) Nucleus • 2) Cytoplasm • 3) Plasma Membrane

  2. Cytoplasm • Jelly-like material inside of the cell • Continuously in motion • Most organelles float within • Job: Allow chemical reactions to take place

  3. Plasma Membrane • Aka: Cell Membrane • Job: Allow materials to enter/exit • Selectively Permeable: only some materials may enter and exit • Material enters/exits through pores and protein channels • Many materials enter/exit through diffusion

  4. Nucleus • Job: Controls cell activity • Where DNA is made & stored • DNA holds info to make proteins • Surrounded by Nuclear Envelope • Inside: • 1) Chromatin: long strands of DNA • 2) Nucleolus: makes ribosomes

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Aka: ER • Rough ER: Tunnel system that transports ribosomes and proteins • Smooth ER: makes fats & breaks down toxins (no ribosomes)

  6. Ribosomes • Created by nucleolus • Some attached to ER… some free-floating • Transported by the rough ER • Job: make proteins

  7. Golgi Apparatus • Job: Package and transport proteins out of the cell • Process Review • 1) Genes hold instructions for making proteins • 2) Nucleolus makes a ribosome • 3) Ribosome makes protein & travels through rough ER • 4) Golgi Body packages the protein into a vesicle and exports them

  8. Golgi Body in action

  9. Mitochondria • Powerhouse: Releases energy to the cell • Job: Create ATP (the energy used by cells) in a process called cellular respiration • Why more abundant in muscle cells? • Endosymbiosis: Once free living

  10. Lysosome • Contain digestive enzymes • Functions: • 1) Break down food • 2) Kill bacteria • 3) Autolysis: Destroy dying cell

  11. Cilia & Flagella • Made of protein • Used in locomotion • Cilia = short hair like extensions (numerous) • Flagella = long whip-like extension (very few)

  12. That one magical night!

  13. Cell Wall • Outermost layer of plant, fungi, & bacteria cells • Job: Adds support to growing plants • Made of tough cellulose • Hard to digest • Witnessed by Robert Hooke in 1665

  14. Chloroplast • Job: Perform photosynthesis (plants) CO2 + H20 + sunlight  Sugar + O2 • Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight & converts it into glucose (sugar) • Endosymbiosis: Once free-living

  15. Click button to play video clip

  16. Vacuole • Job: Stores food, water, waste, color pigments • Job: add support • Swells & shrinks with H2O supply

  17. Quick Review • Different cells have many similar parts • Tiny parts are called “organelles” • Each organelle has a separate function