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Lecture 8

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Lecture 8

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  1. All the rivers run to the sea, yet the sea is not full: unto the place from whence the rivers come, thither they return again. - Ecclesiastes 1:7Sedimentary Rocks Lecture 8 Webpage for course (daytime) Webpage for course (nighttime)

  2. Three types of rocks: - Igneous -Sedimentary - Metamorphic

  3. Sedimentary rocks are important because Form and are common at earth’s surface Preserve the history of Life (contain fossils)

  4. Sedimentary rocks are important because Form and are common at earth’s surface Preserve the history of Life (contain fossils) Show past environments, climates Provide a geologic record of past history Major sources of energy – oil, gas, coal

  5. General History of a Sedimentary Rock WEATHERING TRANSPORTATION DECOMPOSITION DEPOSITION LITHIFICATION

  6. Mechanisms of Transportation and Deposition Water - streams, rivers, etc., freshwater and marine Wind Gravity – downslope movement Ice – glaciers Some sedimentary rocks form of atoms dissolved in water and precipitated elsewhere

  7. Classification of sedimentary rocks Clastic (Detrital in your book) Nonclastic

  8. Nonclastic Example, coal

  9. Nonclastic Another example, rock salt

  10. Clastic Classification depends on grain size Size (mm) particle name >256 64-256 4-64 2-4 .0625-2 .0039-.0625 <0.0039

  11. Clastic Classification depends on grain size Size (mm) particle name rock name >256 boulder 64-256 cobble 4-64 pebble 2-4 granule .0625-2 sand .0039-.0625 silt <0.0039 clay

  12. Clastic Classification depends on grain size Size (mm) particle name rock name >256 boulder 64-256 cobble 4-64 pebble 2-4 granule .0625-2 sand sandstone .0039-.0625 silt <0.0039 clay

  13. Clastic Classification depends on grain size Size (mm) particle name rock name >256 boulder 64-256 cobble conglomerate 4-64 pebble orbreccia 2-4 granule .0625-2 sand sandstone .0039-.0625 silt siltstone <0.0039 clay shale

  14. Why the distinction conglomerate and breccia?

  15. Conglomerate means slow, breccia means sudden

  16. Biogenic Coal Coquina Chalk Diatomite Nonclastic Chemical

  17. Diatoms

  18. Biogenic Coal Coquina Chalk Diatomite Nonclastic Chemical Rock Salt Chert Limestone Dolomite

  19. Coal as Energy