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US Becomes a World Power

US Becomes a World Power. RUSH. Standard 11.4. 11.4 Students trace the rise of the United States to its role as a world power in the Twentieth century. List the purpose and the effects of the Open Door policy . Describe the Spanish-American War and U.S. expansion in the South Pacific.

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US Becomes a World Power

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  1. US Becomes a World Power RUSH

  2. Standard 11.4 • 11.4 Students trace the rise of the United States to its role as a world power in the Twentieth century. • List the purpose and the effects of the Open Door policy. • Describe the Spanish-American War and U.S. expansion in the South Pacific. • Discuss America's role in the Panama Revolution and the building of the Panama Canal. • Explain Theodore Roosevelt's Big Stick diplomacy, William Taft's Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson's Moral Diplomacy, drawing on relevant speeches. • Analyze the political, economic, and social ramifications of World War I on the home front. • Trace the declining role of Great Britain and the expanding role of the United States in world affairs after World War II.

  3. Chapter 10 America Claims an Empire 190-1919 • Section 1 Imperialism and America (pages 342-46) • Section 2 The Spanish-American War (pages 346-52) • Section 3 Acquiring New Lands (pages 352-59) • Section 4 America as a World Power (pages 359-361)

  4. What do we need to know? • Why did American business and political leaders want colonies? • What locations did the United States government control? • How did the United States gain control of these locations? • How were racism and Social Darwinism justifications for imperialism?

  5. Essay Question • Essay Question: • Imagine you are living in1898. • Write an editorial explaining your opinion regarding the Spanish American War and America’s imperialist policy toward countries that are not industrialized. • Do you agree with the taking and controlling of other locations by the United States Government or business interests?

  6. Desire for New Land Imperialism Acquiring new land Thirst for new markets Desire for military strength Alfred T. Mahon Great White Fleet Global Competition Alaska Business and Hawaii 1893 Queen Liliuokalani “The White Man’s Burden” Sanford Dole Asia and the Pacific Global competition John Hay Sphere of Influence China Trade Open Door Policy Hawaii, Samoa, Alaska Boxer Rebellion Spanish American War William McKinley Jose Marti American interests in Cuba Cubans rebel against Spain U.S.S. Maine explodes Theodore Roosevelt Yellow Journalism William Randolph Hearst Joe Pulitzer Rough riders Platt Amendment San Juan Hill War in the Philippines Philippines, Midway Island, Guam Aguinaldo Central America and Caribbean Panama Revolution Panama Canal Big Stick Diplomacy William Howard Taft Dollar Diplomacy Woodrow Wilson Moral Diplomacy Anti-Imperialist League Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, Jane Addams Mexican Revolution Pancho Villa Emiliano Zapata John J. Pershing Key Terms

  7. Who said this? • “We must have no scruples about exterminating this other race standing in the way of progress and enlightenment.”

  8. Quiz: 2-07 • Why does the United States want to be an imperial power beginning before 1898? • How does the US gain Hawaii? • Who was Alfred T. Mahan, and what was his message… and why? • Jose Marti • USS Maine- • Rough Riders

  9. The US will intervene in weaker nations when an economic/business/ or Political/security interest is present and in danger. Hawaii Cuba Philippines China Columbia/Panama Nicaragua Mexico… American Pattern of Imperialism

  10. China and United States Relations • Why does the United States support an “Open Door” policy regarding China?

  11. Pro-Imperialism Document • Secretary of State William Day reflects view- 1898 • “The output of the United States’ manufacturers, developed by the remarkable inventive genius and industrial skill of our people… • Has reached the point of large excess above the demand of home consumption. Under these circumstances it is not surprising that greater interest should be exhibited among our manufacturers and economists in the enlargement of foreign markets for American goods.”

  12. Factors to Consider • American culture has spread throughout the continent of the US • US is industrialized • US needs markets to sell goods • “Produce exceeded consumption” • Business interests desire expansion- Steel industry will support (Navy) • Global Competition over land is present • France, England, Germany, Japan, Italy… • Industrial world vs. Non-industrial world

  13. American Imperialism • Is the desire on the part of politicians and industrialists to acquire colonies in order to support trade and American power. • Two reasons for obtaining colonies include: • Natural Resources • Markets to sell American goods • Imperialism is driven by business interests • Racism in the form of Social Darwinism shape attitudes

  14. Darwin justification • “Nations like species struggle constantly for existence… only the fittest survive.” • Pacific Islands • China

  15. What does a country need in order to have an obtain colonies? • A strong navy to protect American investment and control the land • Alfred T. Mahan advocated strengthening of the American Navy. • Pro-imperialism- US needs • Coaling stops • Repair facilities • Permanent Bases

  16. Alfred T. Mahan • In 1890 published a book, The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1660-1783 • Very popular in America, Roosevelt ordered a copy for every ship • By 1900 US is # 3 Navy in the world

  17. Missionaries • US protestant missionaries support imperialism • Convert the “heathen” • Racist attitudes

  18. Alaska, Hawaii, and Samoa • In 1867 President Johnson’s secretary of state William Seward purchased Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million

  19. Samoa • In 1878 the Samoans granted the United States the rights to the naval base at Pago Pago

  20. How does the US Acquire Hawaii? • Hawaii had American planters and missionaries • These planters wanted to maintain their power and wealth and felt that they would benefit from being part of the US • The US government was interested: • Obtaining colonies • Increasing trade (Hawaii is a good point to support the navy and strategic for trade) • The whites on the islands revolted and in 1893 they seized power

  21. Queen Liliuokalani • In 1891 Liliukalani ascended to the throne and tried to regain power from the Americans • American marines were sent to the islands to support the coup • A new government was formed in Washington and so did a treaty of annexation • Democratic senators blocked ratification • President Cleveland sent a special team to the islands to investigate the events • They found that the coup had been organized by American planters • Hawaii was annexed in 1898

  22. One American who supported Annexation of Hawaii • Sanford Dole • Was an advisor to the king then • Then the governor during the Coup de etat • His brother started the Dole Pineapple business

  23. How does the United States get involved in a War with Spain? • McKinley • Yellow Journalism • Joseph Pulitzer- World • William Randolph Hearst- New York Journal • The USS Maine • De Lome Letter • Cuba • Rough Riders- San Juan Hill • Philippines • Aguinaldo

  24. Spain • Spain was weak • Lost most of its former colonies in the early part of 1800s • Held Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam, and various other colonies in Africa • Americans begin their contact in Cuba first in the Sugarcane business.

  25. Cubans wanted independence from Spain • Fought in 1860’s • And again in 1895 • Spanish repress Cuban rebels harshly • Causes Americans to sympathize with the Cuban Rebels

  26. Jose Marti • Cuban poet and Nationalist wanted Cuban independence and begins a guerrilla war against Spain 1895 • “Man loves liberty, even if he does not know that he loves it. He is driven by it and flees from where it does not exist.” • Marti was afraid of American involvement • Later dies in the war.

  27. President William McKinley • President 1896-1901 • Hesitated to go to war with Spain- • Bowes to public pressure- due to • Yellow Journalism • Maine Explosion • De Lome Letter • Assassinated by an Anarchist-1901 • Theodore Roosevelt takes over after…

  28. Yellow Journalism • The Spanish-American War is often referred to as the first "media war." • During the 1890s, journalism that sensationalized—and sometimes even manufactured—dramatic events was a powerful force that helped propel the United States into war with Spain. • Newspaper publishers used melodrama, romance, and hyperbole (exaggeration) to sell millions of newspapers-

  29. How do these pictures reflect the idea of Yellow Journalism?

  30. Pulitzer and Hurst • Two of the greatest Yellow Journalists.. • Joseph Pulitzer- publisher of the New York World • William Randolph Hearst- publisher of New York Journal • “You Furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war.”

  31. De Lome Letter • Spanish diplomat De Lome, wrote a letter insulting President McKinley • This letter was “Leaked” to the press and caused outrage among Americans. • Americans became more open to the idea of War with Spain.

  32. Maine Explodes 1898 • Causes Americans to Blame Spain • Gives imperialists and excuse to take Spanish possessions

  33. “Yellow” Headlines

  34. “Yellow” Headlines

  35. US calls for troops and invades Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines

  36. Roosevelt, Rough Riders, San Juan Hill • Theodore Roosevelt, former governor of New York, Former Secretary of the Navy,

  37. Philippines • Pre-planned attack- in event of War Dewey was to attack • Americans under Dewey destroy the Spanish Fleet in Manila Bay

  38. Treaty of Paris • Ends the Spanish American War • Cuba gets freedom from Spain (US will control Cuba for some time) • US gets Guam, Puerto Rico, and Buys Philippines for $20 million

  39. Puerto Rico • Why is Puerto Rico important to the US even today? • Does not become a state • Is part of the US

  40. Cuba • Was independent • Teller Amendment- stated US had no intention of holding Cuba (Before the War) • However- the US forced the Cubans to adopt the Platt Amendment- • Cuba could not make treaties with foreign countries to use its territory • US was allowed to intervene in Cuban affairs • Cuba could not go into debt • US could lease land on the island for Navy base • Cuba was a US Protectorate • “There is of course little or no independence left to Cuba.” Wood, American Commander in Cuba

  41. Yankee Imperialism in Cuba • Once in “control” of Cuba • American business begins to assert power • Tobacco • Sugarcane • Fruit

  42. The Philippines and Aguinaldo The Filipinos wanted independence too • Their Leader was Emilliano Aguinaldo • They will fight American control for three years • Aguinaldo will eventually be captured and give up the fight.

  43. US Occupies Philippines • 70,000 -120,000 troops sent to pacify Philippines • 4000 Americans and 20,000 – 50,000 Filipinos die • Lasts 3 years • Bloody and Repressive

  44. Brutal Counter-Insurgency War • Mass killings • Concentrations camps • “We must have no scruples about exterminating this other race standing in the way of progress and enlightenment.”

  45. William Howard Taft • The first American Governor of the Philippines. • Americans claim and control the Philippines until 1948

  46. McKinley and Philippines • McKinley thought • Returning Philippines to Spain would be cowardly • US would not turn over islands to another Imperial country • Filipinos were not ready for independence • US needed to educate the Filipinos

  47. Northeast-Urban Some women Andrew Carnegie Mark Twain Samuel Gompers William Jennings Bryan (will later advocate supporting Treaty of Paris- to bring debate to the presidential election) Undemocratic to hold colonies Empire founded upon force Make worse racial problems in US “Bringing large numbers of aliens into the United States would threaten the welfare of the nation” Morally wrong “No man was ever created good enough to won another. No nation was ever created good enough to own another.” Anti-Imperialism League

  48. Assassination of McKinley

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