the vietnam war and presidency of richard nixon n.
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Unit 6 Lesson 2 Notes 2

Unit 6 Lesson 2 Notes 2

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Unit 6 Lesson 2 Notes 2

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  1. The Vietnam War and Presidency of Richard Nixon Unit 6 Lesson 2 Notes 2

  2. What You Will Learn

  3. Let’s Review • The Cold War lasted from 1945-1991. The Cold War was….. • The US adopted the policy of containment to prevent the spread of communism. • President Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963. The vice-president Lyndon Johnson became president.

  4. The Country of Vietnam • Vietnam is a country in Southeast Asia on the continent of Asia. • Vietnam is below China. • Vietnam was controlled by France from 1887-1954.

  5. DIVISION OF VIETNAM • A peace conference was held in Geneva, Switzerland in 1954 to decide what to do in Vietnam after France lost control of the country. • The US feared communist leader Ho Chi Minh would take power and establish a communist government. . • At the conference, Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel.

  6. The Domino Theory • The domino theory was the belief that if Vietnam fell to communism, the rest of Southeast Asia would fall to communism too. • Eisenhower adopted this theory in the 1950s and sent a few thousand military advisors to help South Vietnam fight off the North Vietnamese communists. • President Kennedy sent 20,000 military advisors to South Vietnam in the early 1960s.

  7. Communism in Asia

  8. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • In 1964, President Johnson told Congress that two US destroyers were bombed in the Gulf of Tonkin in North Vietnam. • In response, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to authorize the President to “take all necessary steps including armed conflict,” in Vietnam. • By late 1964, 184,000 US troops were in Vietnam. At the height of the war, in 1968, there were over 536,000 US troops in the country.

  9. Fighting in Vietnam—The Vietcong • US troops were fighting the North Vietnamese army as well as the Vietcong. • Vietcong were South Vietnamese who wanted to be part of North Vietnam. • US troops were not able to determine who was a friend and who was an enemy among those they were fighting and the Vietnamese people.

  10. Fighting in Vietnam—The Jungle • The US used guerilla warfare. • Guerilla warfare is the use of surprise attacks with a quick retreat. • The US used chemicals to clear the jungle • Napalm is a chemical based gasoline that stuck to and burned everything it touched. • Agent Orange is chemical pesticide used to burn the leaves off trees . By 1967, 1.5 million acres were being doused annually

  11. NAPALM

  12. TET OFFENSIVE-TURING POINT OF THE VIETNAM WAR • On January 30, 1968, known as TET, the Vietnamese New Year, a ceasefire was called. • Communist guerillas launched a major offensive against the US and South Vietnam violating the cease-fire. • The US embassy in Saigon was attacked. • This event turned many Americans against the war, as new coverage showed the battles and thousands of US soldiers bodies returning home.

  13. AMERICANS PROTEST THE WAR • War protests spread across the country. • The Students for a Democratic Society, or SDS helped organize protests on college campuses. • The Vietnam War became known as the “living room war” because Americans watched coverage on television. • Due to media coverage, Americans were more aware of the war and voiced their opinions, which influenced US government policies.

  14. My Lai Massacre • On March 16th 1968, the My Lai massacre occurred. • US troops killed 300 unarmed civilians including women, children, and the elderly in the village of My Lai. • News of the event, spread like wildfire through the US media and was misrepresented as the norm for how US soldiers behaved in Vietnam.   • The My Lai Massacre increased anti-war protests across the nation.

  15. Ending the War in Vietnam • President Johnson lost the 1968 Presidential election to Richard Nixon. • Vietnamization: Nixon’s two part plan to end the war. • 1. Phased withdrawal of US troops • 2. Training and equipping South Vietnamese to replace US troops • January 23, 1973—a cease fire was signed and most US troops were removed from South Vietnam.

  16. THE FALL OF SAIGON • The End of the War officially occurred in January 1975. • The North Vietnamese launched an attack and took over the capital of Saigon in South Vietnam. • As the North Vietnamese moved into Saigon, supporters of the US scrambled to get out of the capital. • On July 2, 1975, North and South Vietnam were united as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam - a communist country.

  17. Results of the Vietnam War • 58,220 American soldiers were killed. • 2 million Vietnamese soldiers and civilians were killed. • Thousands of American soldiers were wounded both physically and mentally. • American soldiers were treated poorly when they returned home. • Soldiers were harassed, spit on, called “baby killers.”

  18. Presidency of Richard Nixon • Détente • Pentagon Papers • Watergate Scandal

  19. Détente • Détente is the easing of tension between nations. • In 1972 President Nixon visited China and Soviet Union. • Nixon eased tension with these nations.

  20. Pentagon Papers • In 1971 the New York Times began to publish the Pentagon Papers. • The Pentagon Papers were secret documents that exposed the manipulation of the government and the office of the presidency, to sell the war to Congress and the public. • President Nixon tried to stop the publication of the Pentagon Papers. • The Supreme Court ruled that the documents could be printed.   • The result was a lasting distrust of the US government and the office of the presidency.

  21. Watergate Scandal • The Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP) ran Nixon’s election campaign in 1972. • Members of CREEP broke into the Democratic National Committee headquarters. • The CREEP burglars were caught and Nixon tried to cover up the break-in. (Verbally mention why he tried to cover it up) • The break-in and the attempts to cover it up became known as the Watergate Scandal.

  22. Nixon Resigns • Nixon was facing certain impeachment. • Impeachment is the process of bringing formal charges against a president who is in office. • On August 8, 1974, Nixon resigned as president (Resigns means to give up your job). • The Pentagon Papers and the Watergate Scandal cast a lasting suspicion over the office of President and the US government.

  23. Let’s Review:The Vietnam War • Vietnam was divided into communist north and non-communist south. • The domino theory is one a reason the US went to war in Vietnam. • The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was the official starting point of the war in Vietnam. • Guerilla and chemical warfare were used in Vietnam. • The TET Offensive turned Americans against the war and war protests spread throughout the US. • Richard Nixon ended the war with his policy of Vietnamization. • President Nixon established détente with China and the Soviet Union. • The Pentagon Papers revealed deception by the US government in the Vietnam War.

  24. Let’s Review: The Presidency of Richard Nixon