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Unit 2 Notes

Unit 2 Notes

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Unit 2 Notes

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  1. Unit 2 Notes Art of the Ancient Near East Chapter 2 Stokstad Pages 24-47

  2. Objectives • See the Ancient Near East as a place in which certain attitudes about art and architecture emerge early and remain viable for about three thousand years. • Observe that the region has a history of successive controlling states. The controlling powers would mold their artistic inheritance to meet their own needs. • Grasp a sense of the chronological development of political history in the region. • Associate certain stylistic characteristics with each of the historical periods. • See the close relationship among political, religious, and artistic impulses in the Near East.

  3. Fertile Crescent Domesticated Grains Mesopotamia “Land Between Two Rivers” Tigris and Euphrates Divided into city-states with individual gods and govt. Historical Context

  4. Some Apples, Bananas, And Peaches

  5. Neo-Sumerian – Gudea of Lagash Neo-Babylonian – Nebuchadnezzar II City of UR (first independent city-state) – Anu and Nanna Ziggurats – developed 1st writing system – VOTIVE FIGURES – Cylinder seals for stamping – EPIC OF GILGAMESH – invention of the wheel SUMERIAN AKKADIAN BABYLONIAN ASSYRIAN PERSIAN Sargon I defeats Sumerians – Stele of Naramsin – heiratic scale – brutality in art United Sumer under Hammurabi (1792 – 1750 BCE) – Stele of Hammurabi with his Code of Laws – Creation Myths Took control around 1400 BCE – King Assurbanipal – kept library, ziggurat form & Sumerian texts – Human-head lion LAMASSUs guard palace Cyrus & the citadel at Persepolis (built between 521-465 BCE)

  6. Located in the West Bank territory Earliest stone fortification discovered to date Agricultural village Mud brisk houses People of Jericho wanted protection Built a wall 5 ft. thick and 20 ft. high Jericho

  7. Sumer • Believed to have invented the wagon wheel and plow • Writing System • Cuneiform (Wedge-Shaped) • Pressed into clay tablets with a stylus • Writing, Arithmetic, Commerce, Justice, and Literary epic

  8. Ziggurat Layout • Ziggurat = Mountain Top • Pyramidal like structure with winding ramps to a temple • Temples are center of structure (center of spiritual and physical existence) • Shrines, houses, workshops, storehouses, & scribes’ quarters surrounded temple • Four sides oriented to points of compass • CELLA: Main room of temple where sacrifices were offered to statue of the god.

  9. Ruins of the White Temple Sumerian Uruk (Present Day Iraq) 3300-3000 BCE

  10. White Temple Ziggurat • Worshipper enters complex on east • Processional path is an angular spiral • Possibly dedicated to Anu • Top only open to select few w/ “waiting room”

  11. Interior of the CellaWhite Temple

  12. Face of a Woman (Warka Head) Uruk 3300-3000 BCE SUMERIAN Believed to be the goddess Inanna

  13. Presentation of offerings to Inanna Is the first great work of narrative relief known Registers Possibly celebrating marriage of king to god. Warka Vase. Uruk, Iraq. c. 3200-3000 BCE SUMERIAN

  14. Votive Figures • Votive figures dedicated to the gods • Figures represent individual worshippers • Cylindrical shaped • Wide Eyes • Attentive Gaze • Hands clasped in worship Abu Temple Statues. Tell Asmar, Iraq.Circa 2900-2600 BCE. SUMERIAN

  15. Dedicated to the moon god Nanna Reflects the belief that Mt. Tops are dwelling places of the gods 3 Levels Ziggurat of Ur Ziggurat of King Urnammu Ur, Iraq. c. 2100 BCE

  16. Ziggurat of King Urnammu Ur, Iraq. 2100 BCE SUMERIAN

  17. Standard of Ur Ancient Sumerian Box Contained a Peace side and a War side

  18. Peace

  19. War

  20. Inanna-Ishtar2025-1763 BCE • Sumerian goddess • High-Relief sculpture

  21. AKKADIAN ART (2350-2180 BCE) • Power of Sumerian city-states decline  stewards ruling as monarchs • Akkadians move south & begin to take over many areas • Sargon of Akkad overtakes Sumer & unites empire

  22. Head of Akkadian Ruler Ninevah 2300-2200 BCE Copper Alloy AKKADIAN

  23. Stele of Naram-Sin • Concept of Imperial authority • Memorializes one of Naram-Sin’s military victories • Made himself divine • Hieratic Scale • Horned helmet = Divine

  24. Victory Stele of Naram-Sin Akkadian 2300-2200 BCE

  25. Gudea Gudea 2090 BCE Diorite AKKADIAN • Ruler of Lagash • Managed to remain independent during Akkadian rule

  26. Gudea, city ruler of Lagash, the man who built the temple of Ningishzida and the temple of Geshtinanna. Gudea, city ruler of Lagash, built to Geshtinanna, the queen a-azi-mu-a, the beloved wife of Ningishzida, his queen, her temple in Girsu. He created for her [this] statue. "She granted the prayer," he gave it a name for her and brought it into her temple.

  27. Babylonian • Hammurabi’s Code = His greatest achievement • Written legal code • Laws • Penalties • Duties • Rights • Justice between god and man

  28. Law Code of Hammurabi Susa 1792-1750 Diorite BABYLONIAN

  29. The Hittites of Anatolia • Present day Turkey • Hattusha = Capital city • Hittites created an empire through trade and conquest • First to work in iron • Weapons • Palace Citadels with double gateways

  30. Lion Gate Hattusha 1400 BCE Limestone BABYLONIAN

  31. Assyrians rose to dominance in northern Mesopotamia Extended their influence to Egypt 600 BCE Empire collapsed Assyrian

  32. Human-Headed Winged Bull (Lamassu) Assyrian Alabaster 883-859 BCE It’s a Bird, It’s a Bull, It’s a Man???

  33. Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions 850 BCE Alabaster Assyrian

  34. Ishtar Gate Neo-Babylonian 575 BCE Glazed Brick Neo-Babylonian

  35. Persia • Persians formerly nomadic seized power • Darius I ruled 521-486 • Organized Persian lands into tribute paying areas • Left Local Rulers in place • Tolerance for diversity • Fair taxation • Standardized Currency

  36. Imperial Persepolis

  37. Darius and Xerxes Receiving Tribute 491-486 BCE Limestone Persian