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Unit 2 Notes: Neurotransmitters

Unit 2 Notes: Neurotransmitters

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Unit 2 Notes: Neurotransmitters

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  1. Unit 2 Notes:Neurotransmitters

  2. (1) Basic Function • Released from Axon Terminals • Travel across synapse • Bind to: • Other Neuron • Effector Organ • Stimulates: • Another Nerve Impulse • Organ Movement/Functioning

  3. (2) Serotonin • Digestive stimulation • Positive, Dominant Emotions: • Happiness • Confidence • Social Comfort • Stimulates growth and development

  4. (3) Acetylcholine (Ach) • Stimulates muscle contraction • Stimulates REM sleep • Stimulates sensory neurons

  5. (4) Norepinephrine & Epinephrine • Increases alertness • Increases heart rate, blood pressure • Increases respiratory rate • Related to memory formation

  6. (5) Dopamine • Inhibititory • Feelings of happiness, pleasure and content • Increased social behavior • Muscle movement control

  7. (6) Glutamate & GABA • GABA = Gamma Aminobutyric Acid • Inhibits excitatory neurotransmitters • Decreases anxiety and paranoia • Maintains proper firing of nerve impulses(Lacking?  Epilepsy) • Glutamate: • Type of GABA • Linked to memory • Abundance  Kills brain cells  Brain Disease

  8. (7) Endorphins & Enkephalins • Structurally similar to opiates • Inhibitory • Can block the transmission of: • Pain • Excessive pleasure/excitement • Stimulates relaxation: • Slows heart + respiration rate • Slows metabolism • Excess  Organ Shut Down

  9. (8) Schizophrenia • Cause: • Uncoordinated release of dopamine and glutamate • Symptoms: • Delusional, hallucination • Disorganized speech • Sudden onset of depression / sluggishness

  10. (9) Clinical Depression • Cause: • Absence / low concentration of serotonin, norepinephrine, and/or dopamine. • Symptoms: • Extreme fatigue OR Insomnia • Lack of emotion/mood • Feelings of worthlessness/hopelessness • Loss of interest in anything

  11. (10) Clinical Bipolar Disorder • Cause: • Extreme imbalance, and inconsistent production of neurotransmitters… • Serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine • Symptoms: • Manic Periods  • Hyper, anxious, volatile emotions • Extreme focus / creativity / proactive behavior • Depressive Periods  • Same symptoms as clinical depression.