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  1. Table of Contents – pages iii Unit 1:What is Biology? Unit 2:Ecology Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Unit 4:Genetics Unit 5:Change Through Time Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7:Plants Unit 8:Invertebrates Unit 9:Vertebrates Unit 10:The Human Body

  2. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes Chapter 4:Population Biology Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7:A View of the Cell Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell

  3. Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11:DNA and Genes Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13:Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14:The History of Life Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16:Primate Evolution Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

  4. Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19:Protists Chapter 20:Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21:What Is a Plant? Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

  5. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25:What Is an Animal? Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28:Arthropods Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

  6. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32:Mammals Chapter 33:Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36:The Nervous System Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease

  7. Unit Overview – pages 366-367 Change Through Time The History of Life The Theory of Evolution Primate Evolution Organizing Life’s Diversity

  8. Chapter Contents – page ix Chapter 17Organizing Life’s Diversity 17.1:Classification 17.1:Section Check 17.2:The Six Kingdoms 17.2:Section Check Chapter 17Summary Chapter 17Assessment

  9. Chapter Intro-page 442 What You’ll Learn You will identify and compare various methods of classification. You will distinguish among six kingdoms of organisms.

  10. 17.1 Section Objectives – page 443 Section Objectives: • Evaluate the history, purpose, and methods of taxonomy. • Explain the meaning of a scientific name. • Describe the organization of taxa in a biological classification system.

  11. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 How Classification Began • Biologists want to better understand organisms so they organize them. • One tool that they use to do this is classification—the grouping of objects or information based on similarities.

  12. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 How Classification Began • Taxonomy (tak SAH nuh mee) is the branch of biology that groups and names organisms based on studies of their different characteristics. Click image to view movie. • Biologists who study taxonomy are called taxonomists.

  13. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Aristotle’s system • The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) developed the first widely accepted system of biological classification. • He classified all the organisms he knew into two groups: plants and animals.

  14. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Aristotle’s system • He subdivided plants into three groups, herbs, shrubs, and trees, depending on the size and structure of a plant. • He grouped animals according to various characteristics, including their habitat and physical differences.

  15. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Aristotle’s system • According to his system, birds, bats, and flying insects are classified together even though they have little in common besides the ability to fly. • As time passed, more organisms were discovered and some did not fit easily into Aristotle’s groups, but many centuries passed before Aristotle’s system was replaced.

  16. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Linnaeus’s system of binomial nomenclature • In the late eighteenth century, a Swedish botanist, Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778), developed a method of grouping organisms that is still used by scientists today. • Linnaeus’s system was based on physical and structural similarities of organisms. • As a result, the groupings revealed the relationships of the organisms.

  17. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Linnaeus’s system of binomial nomenclature • Eventually, some biologists proposed that structural similarities reflect the evolutionary relationships of species. • This way of organizing organisms is the basis of modern classification systems.

  18. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Linnaeus’s system of binomial nomenclature • Modern classification systems use a two-word naming system called binomial nomenclature that Linnaeus developed to identify species. • In this system, the first word identifies the genus of the organism. • A genus (JEE nus) (plural, genera) consists of a group of similar species.

  19. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Linnaeus’s system of binomial nomenclature • The second word, which sometimes describes a characteristic of the organism, is called the specific epithet. • Thus, the scientific name for each species, referred to as the species name, is a combination of the genus name and specific epithet. Homo sapiens

  20. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Scientific and common names • Taxonomists are required to use Latin because the language is no longer used in conversation and, therefore, does not change. • Scientific names should be italicized in print and underlined when handwritten. • The first letter of the genus name is uppercase, but the first letter of the specific epithet is lowercase. Passer domesticus – house sparrow

  21. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Scientific and common names • Many organisms have common names. However, a common name can be misleading. For example, a sea horse is a fish, not a horse. • In addition, it is confusing when a species has more than one common name.

  22. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Modern Classification • Expanding on Linnaeus’s work, today’s taxonomists try to identify the underlying evolutionary relationships of organisms and use the information gathered as a basis for classification. • Grouping organisms on the basis of their evolutionary relationships makes it easier to understand biological diversity.

  23. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomy: A framework • Taxonomists group similar organisms, both living and extinct. Classification provides a framework in which to study the relationships among living and extinct species. • For example, biologists study the relationship between birds and dinosaurs within the framework of classification. Archaeopteryx

  24. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomy: A useful tool • Classifying organisms can be a useful tool for scientists who work in agriculture, forestry, and medicine.

  25. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomy: A useful tool • Anyone can learn to identify many organisms using a dichotomous key. • A key is made up of sets of numbered statements. Each set deals with a single characteristic of an organism, such as leaf shape or arrangement.

  26. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomy and the economy • It often happens that the discovery of new sources of lumber, medicines, and energy results from the work of taxonomists. • The characteristics of a familiar species are frequently similar to those found in a new, related species.

  27. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomy and the economy • For example, if a taxonomist knows that a certain species of pine tree contains chemicals that make good disinfectants, it’s possible that another pine species could also contain these useful substances.

  28. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 How Living Things Are Classified • In any classification system, items are categorized, making them easier to find and discuss. • Although biologists group organisms, they subdivide the groups on the basis of more specific criteria. • A group of organisms is called a taxon (plural, taxa).

  29. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomic rankings • Organisms are ranked in taxa that range from having very broad characteristics to very specific ones. • The broader a taxon, the more general its characteristics, and the more species it contains.

  30. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomic rankings • The smallest taxon is species. Organisms that look alike and successfully interbreed belong to the same species. • The next largest taxon is a genus—a group of similar species that have similar features and are closely related.

  31. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Taxonomic rankings • Compare the appearance of a lynx, Lynx rufus, a bobcat, Lynx canadensis, and a mountain lion, Panthera concolor. Mountain lion Lynx Bobcat

  32. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Chordata Phylum Class Mammalia Carnivora Order Felidae Family Lynx Genus Species Lynx canadensis Lynx rufus Lynx Bobcat

  33. Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Chordata Phylum Class Mammalia Carnivora Order Felidae Family Lynx Genus Species Lynx canadensis Lynx rufus Lynx Bobcat

  34. Section 1 Check Question 1 How did Aristotle group organisms such as birds, bats, and insects? A. by their common genus B. by their analogous structures C. by their common species D. by their homologous structures

  35. Section 1 Check The answer is B. The organisms were grouped together because of their wings, which, in this case, are analogous structures.

  36. Section 1 Check Question 2 Which taxon contains the fewest species? A. genus B. family C. order D. phylum The answer is A, genus.

  37. Section 1 Check Question 3 For which of the following species names does the specific epithet mean “handy?” A. Homo sapiens B. Homo erectus C. Australopithecus anamensis D. Homo habilis The answer is D.

  38. Section 1 Check Question 4 What is the difference between “classification” and “taxonomy?” Answer Classification is the grouping of objects or information based on similarities. Taxonomy is the branch of biology that classifies and names organisms based on their different characteristics.

  39. Section 1 Check Question 5 What are the two parts that make up binomial nomenclature? Answer Binomial nomenclature comprises a genus name followed by a specific epithet.

  40. Section 2 Objectives – page 450 Section Objectives • Describe how evolutionary relationships are determined. • Explain how cladistics reveals phylogenetic relationships. • Compare the six kingdoms of organisms.

  41. Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 How are evolutionary relationships determined? • Evolutionary relationships are determined on the basis of similarities in structure, breeding behavior, geographical distribution, chromosomes, and biochemistry.

  42. Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Structural similarities • Structural similarities among species reveal relationships. • The presence of many shared physical structures implies that species are closely related and may have evolved from a common ancestor.

  43. Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Structural similarities • For example, plant taxonomists use structural evidence to classify dandelions and sunflowers in the same family, Asteraceae, because they have similar flower and fruit structures.

  44. Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Structural similarities • Taxonomists observe and compare features among members of different taxa and use this information to infer their evolutionary history.

  45. Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Breeding behavior • Sometimes, breeding behavior provides important clues to relationships among species. • For example, two species of frogs, Hyla versicolor and Hyla chrysoscelis, live in the same area and look similar. During the breeding season, however, there is an obvious difference in their mating behavior. • Scientists concluded that the frogs were two separate species.

  46. Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Geographical distribution Probing Bills Grasping Bills Crushing Bills Feeders Cactus Insect Feeders Seed Fruit Feeders Parrot Bills Feeders Ancestral Species

  47. Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Geographical distribution • These finches probably spread into different niches on the volcanic islands and evolved over time into many distinct species. The fact that they share a common ancestry is supported by their geographical distribution in addition to their genetic similarities.

  48. Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Chromosome comparisons • Both the number and structure of chromosomes, as seen during mitosis and meiosis, provide evidence about relationships among species.

  49. Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Chromosome comparisons • For example, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, and broccoli look different but have chromosomes that are almost identical in structure.