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Table of Contents – pages iv-v PowerPoint Presentation
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Table of Contents – pages iv-v

Table of Contents – pages iv-v

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Table of Contents – pages iv-v

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  1. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1:What is Biology? Unit 2:Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4:Genetics Unit 5:Change Through Time Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7:Plants Unit 8:Invertebrates Unit 9:Vertebrates Unit 10:The Human Body

  2. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes Chapter 4:Population Biology Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7:A View of the Cell Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell

  3. Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11:DNA and Genes Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13:Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14:The History of Life Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16:Primate Evolution Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages iv-v

  4. Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19:Protists Chapter 20:Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21:What Is a Plant? Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages iv-v

  5. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25:What Is an Animal? Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28:Arthropods Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

  6. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32:Mammals Chapter 33:Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36:The Nervous System Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease

  7. Unit Overview – pages 366-367 Changes through Time The History of Life The Theory of Evolution Primate Evolution Organizing Life’s Diversity

  8. Chapter Contents – page viii Chapter 16Introduction: Primate Evolution 16.1:Primate adaptation and Evolution 16.1:Section Check 16.2:Human Ancestry 16.2:Section Check Chapter 16Summary Chapter 16Assessment

  9. Chapter Intro-page 420 What You’ll Learn You will compare and contrast primates and their adaptations. You will analyze the evidence for the ancestry of humans.

  10. 16.1 Section Objectives – page 421 Section Objectives: • Recognize the adaptations of primates. • Compare and contrast the diversity of living primates. • Distinguish the evolutionary relationships of primates.

  11. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 What is a primate? • The primates are a group of mammals that includes lemurs, monkeys, apes, and humans. • The majority of primates are arboreal, meaning they live in trees, and have several adaptations that help them survive there.

  12. A. Opposable thumbs Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 A Primate • Primates have rounded heads and flattened faces, unlike most other groups of mammals. B.Vision C. Brain volume D. Arm movement E. Flexible joints F. Feet

  13. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 A Primate • Primates have an opposable thumb-a thumb that can cross the palm to meet the other fingertips.

  14. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Primate Origins • The similarities among the many primates is evidence that primates share an evolutionary history. • Scientists use fossil evidence and comparative anatomical, genetic, and biochemical studies of modern primates to propose ideas about how primates are related and how they evolved.

  15. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Primate Origins • Biologists classify primates into two major groups: strepsirrhines and haplorhines. Primate Ancestors Haplorhines Strepsirrhines Anthropoids Hominoids Hominids Old World monkeys Tarsiers New World monkeys African apes Lorises, Pottos and Galagos Gibbons Lemurs Orangutans Humans

  16. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Primates • Present-day strepsirrhines are small primates that include, among others, the lemurs and aye-ayes. • Most strepsirrhines have large eyes and are nocturnal. They live in the tropical forests of Africa and Southeast Asia.

  17. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Primates • The earliest fossils of strepsirrhines are about 50 to 55 million years old.

  18. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Humanlike primates evolve • The remaining living primates are members of a group called haplorhines. • This group consists of tarsiers and the anthropoids the humanlike primates.

  19. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Humanlike primates evolve • Anthropoids include hominoids and Old and New World monkeys.

  20. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Humanlike primates evolve • In turn, hominoids include apes and humans. Primate Ancestors Haplorhines Strepsirrhines Anthropoids Hominoids Hominids Old World monkeys Tarsiers New World monkeys African apes Lorises, Pottos and Galagos Gibbons Lemurs Orangutans Humans

  21. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Humanlike primates evolve • Anthropoids have more complex brains than strepsirrhines. Anthropoids are also larger and have different skeletal features, such as a more or less upright posture, than strepsirrhines. • What are commonly called “monkeys” are classified as either New World monkeys or Old World Monkeys.

  22. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Humanlike primates evolve • New World monkeys, which live in the rain forests of South America and Central America, are all arboreal. • A long, muscular prehensile tail characterizes many of these primates. They use the tail as a fifth limb, grasping and wrapping it around branches as they move from tree to tree.

  23. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Humanlike primates evolve • Old World monkeys are generally larger than New World monkeys. • Old World monkeys do not have prehensile tails.

  24. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Humanlike primates evolve • They are adapted to many environments that range from the hot, dry savannas of Africa to the cold mountain forests of Japan.

  25. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Humanlike primates evolve • Hominoids are classified as apes or humans. • Apes include orangutans, gibbons, chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas.

  26. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Humanlike primates evolve • Apes have long, muscled forelimbs for climbing in trees, swinging from branches, and knuckle walking, or walking on two legs with support from their hands.

  27. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Humanlike primates evolve • Although many apes are arboreal, most also spend time on the ground. • Among the apes, social interactions indicate a large brain capacity.

  28. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Humanlike primates evolve Modern human • Humans have an even larger brain capacity and walk upright. Gorilla ¼ natural size ¼ natural size Browridge Sagittal crest Browridge Australopithecus ¼ natural size

  29. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Humanlike primates evolve • Anthropologists have suggested that monkeys, apes, and humans share a common anthropoid ancestor based on their structural and social similarities.

  30. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Anthropoids evolved worldwide • Although New World monkeys probably share a common anthropoid-like ancestor with the Old World monkeys, they evolved independently of the Old World monkeys because of geographic isolation. • Old World monkeys evolved more recently than New World monkeys.

  31. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Anthropoids evolved worldwide • The present-day, worldwide distribution of monkeys and apes show they have adapted to a wide range of habitats. Old World monkeys Chimpanzees Gibbons New World monkeys Gorillas

  32. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Hominoids evolved in Asia and Africa • According to the fossil record, there was a global cooling when the hominoids evolved in Asia and Africa. • Important changes in vegetation, such as the evolution of grass, also occurred. • At about the same time, the Old World monkeys became adapted to this climatic cooling.

  33. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Hominoids evolved in Asia and Africa • By examining the DNA of each of the modern hominoids, scientists have evaluated the probable order in which the different apes and humans evolved. Gibbon • It appears that gibbons were probably the first apes that evolved, followed by the orangutans that are found in southeast Asia.

  34. Section 16.1 Summary – pages 421-427 Hominoids evolved in Asia and Africa • Finally, the African apes, gorillas and chimpanzees, evolved. • Morphological and molecular data suggest that chimpanzees share the closest common ancestor with modern humans.

  35. Section 1 Check Question 1 Why is an opposable thumb an advantage to primates? Answer Opposable thumbs enable primates to grasp, manipulate, and cling to objects.

  36. Section 1 Check Question 2 What does binocular vision allow primates to see? Answer Binocular vision allows primates to perceive depth and gauge distances.

  37. Section 1 Check Question 3 Which of the following is NOT a homologous structure of anthropoids and strepsirrhines? A. large brain relative to body size B. opposable thumbs C. flexible joints D. upright posture

  38. Section 1 Check The answer is D. Strepsirrhines do not exhibit upright posture.

  39. Section 1 Check Question 4 Which monkeys are the best examples of adaptive radiation, Old World monkeys or New World monkeys, and why? Answer The answer is Old World monkeys. Old World monkeys are arboreal, terrestrial, or both and have adapted to environments that range from the hot dry savannas of Africa to the cold mountain forests of Japan.

  40. Section 1 Check Question 5 Do modern humans share the closest common ancestor with New World monkeys or Old World monkeys? Answer Humans share the closes common ancestor with chimpanzees, which are evolved from Old World monkeys.

  41. 16.2 Section Objectives – page 428 Section Objectives: • Compare and contrast the adaptations of australopithecines with those of apes and humans. • Identify the evidence of the major anatomical changes in hominids during human evolution.

  42. Section 16.2 Summary – pages 428-435 Hominids • Some scientists propose that between 5 and 8 million years ago in Africa, a population that was ancestral to chimpanzees and humans diverged into two lines. • According to this hypothesis, one line evolved into chimpanzees, and the other line eventually evolved into modern humans.

  43. Section 16.2 Summary – pages 428-435 Hominids • These two lines are collectively called the hominoids (HAH mih noydz)-primates that can walk upright on two legs and include gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans. • Some scientists suggest that the divergence of the population of ancestral hominoids might have occurred in response to environmental changes that forced some ancestral hominoids to leave their treetop environments and move onto the ground to find food.

  44. Section 16.2 Summary – pages 428-435 Hominids • In order to move efficiently on the ground while avoiding predators, it was helpful for the hominoids to be bipedal, meaning able to walk on two legs. • Hominids (HAH mih nudz) are bipedal primates that include modern humans and their direct ancestors.

  45. Section 16.2 Summary – pages 428-435 Hominids • Therefore, hominoids with the ability to walk upright probably survived more successfully on the ground. • These individuals then lived to reproduce and pass the characteristics to their offspring.

  46. Section 16.2 Summary – pages 428-435 Hominids • According to this reasoning, the bipedal organisms that evolved might have been the earliest hominids. • The many fossils that scientists have found reveal much about the anatomy and behavior of early hominids.

  47. Section 16.2 Summary – pages 428-435 Early hominids walked upright Sagittal crest • Raymond Dart, discovered a skull of a young hominoid with a braincase and facial structure similar to those of an ape. Australopithecus ¼ natural size Browridge

  48. Section 16.2 Summary – pages 428-435 Early hominids walked upright • However, the skull also had an unusual feature for an ape skull-the position of the foramen magnum, the opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes as it leaves the brain. • In the fossil, the opening was located on the bottom of the skull, as it is in humans but not in apes.

  49. Section 16.2 Summary – pages 428-435 Early hominids walked upright • Because of this feature, Dart proposed that the organism had walked upright. • He classified the organism as a new primate species, Australopithecus africanus. • The skull that Dart found has been dated at between 2.5 and 2.8 million years old.