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UNIT 2 NOTES: ORGANELLES PowerPoint Presentation
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UNIT 2 NOTES: ORGANELLES

UNIT 2 NOTES: ORGANELLES

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UNIT 2 NOTES: ORGANELLES

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  1. UNIT 2 NOTES:ORGANELLES

  2. (1) Nucleus • Stores DNA / Chromosomes • Covered in Nuclear Envelope • Nucleolus makes ribosomes • “Controls” cell

  3. (2) Endoplasmic Reticulum • Lipid production + assembly • Protein assembly • Lipid + Protein export

  4. (3) Ribosome • Protein production • Works with DNA andRNA

  5. (4) Golgi Body / Apparatus • Modify, Sort & Package Proteins • Take materials made in endoplasmic reticulum Package to be shipped to other areas of the cell, or to be secreted out of the cell!

  6. (5) Mitochondrion • Convert chemical energy stored in food, into ATP. • Undergo Cellular Respiration.

  7. (6) Chloroplast • Convert light energy from the sun, into stored energy in food. • Undergo photosynthesis.

  8. (7) Lysosome • Filled with enzymes (Lysozyme) that digest/break down lipids, carbs, proteins and other molecules into smaller forms. • Digest “useless” cell parts.

  9. (8) Peroxisome • Contain catalase (enzyme) • Break down hydrogen peroxide. • H.Peroxide is produced during lipid metabolism.

  10. (9) Centriole / Centrosome • Centriolesare unique to animal cells. • Centrioles organize DNA during replication + division. • Centrosomes produce microtubules like centrioles. • Centrosomes also help w/division in plant cells.

  11. Vacuole • Storage sac for materials like water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates. • Plants use them to maintain structure.

  12. (11) Cell Membrane • Outer covering on all cells. • Made of a phospholipidbilayer. • Controls what enters + leaves the cell.

  13. (12) Cell Wall • More structured outer covering on some cells. • Often made of cellulose. • Provides additional structure + rigidity to cells.

  14. PLANT VS. ANIMAL CELLS

  15. EndosymbioticTheory

  16. (1) Endosymbiotic Theory • Modern eukaryotic cells evolved from free-living prokaryotic cells living symbiotically with larger unicellular organisms. • Symbiotically?? • The cells lived and worked together because they benefited from the relationship.

  17. (2) Summarizing the Theory • Chloroplasts + Mitochondria were once free-living bacterial cells (prokaryotes). • The chloroplasts + mitochondria benefited from living with larger prokaryotes. • The larger prokaryotes took the chloroplasts + mitochondria inside their cell. • TA-DA!  The Modern Day Eukaryotic Cell

  18. (3) Evidence for the Theory • Chloroplasts, Mitochondria, …. • Have their own fully developed cell membranes. • Have their own copy of DNA. • Can replicate themselves, all on their own. • They have their own ribosomes. • They produce their own proteins. • They can exist/survive on their own w/o a larger cell.

  19. (4) Other Examples Like This… • Bobtailed Squid + Glowing Bacteria • Aphids + Digestive Bacteria • Spotted Salamander + Algae