(1) Nucleus • Stores DNA / Chromosomes • Covered in Nuclear Envelope • Nucleolus makes ribosomes • “Controls” cell
(2) Endoplasmic Reticulum • Lipid production + assembly • Protein assembly • Lipid + Protein export
(3) Ribosome • Protein production • Works with DNA andRNA
(4) Golgi Body / Apparatus • Modify, Sort & Package Proteins • Take materials made in endoplasmic reticulum Package to be shipped to other areas of the cell, or to be secreted out of the cell!
(5) Mitochondrion • Convert chemical energy stored in food, into ATP. • Undergo Cellular Respiration.
(6) Chloroplast • Convert light energy from the sun, into stored energy in food. • Undergo photosynthesis.
(7) Lysosome • Filled with enzymes (Lysozyme) that digest/break down lipids, carbs, proteins and other molecules into smaller forms. • Digest “useless” cell parts.
(8) Peroxisome • Contain catalase (enzyme) • Break down hydrogen peroxide. • H.Peroxide is produced during lipid metabolism.
(9) Centriole / Centrosome • Centriolesare unique to animal cells. • Centrioles organize DNA during replication + division. • Centrosomes produce microtubules like centrioles. • Centrosomes also help w/division in plant cells.
Vacuole • Storage sac for materials like water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates. • Plants use them to maintain structure.
(11) Cell Membrane • Outer covering on all cells. • Made of a phospholipidbilayer. • Controls what enters + leaves the cell.
(12) Cell Wall • More structured outer covering on some cells. • Often made of cellulose. • Provides additional structure + rigidity to cells.
(1) Endosymbiotic Theory • Modern eukaryotic cells evolved from free-living prokaryotic cells living symbiotically with larger unicellular organisms. • Symbiotically?? • The cells lived and worked together because they benefited from the relationship.
(2) Summarizing the Theory • Chloroplasts + Mitochondria were once free-living bacterial cells (prokaryotes). • The chloroplasts + mitochondria benefited from living with larger prokaryotes. • The larger prokaryotes took the chloroplasts + mitochondria inside their cell. • TA-DA! The Modern Day Eukaryotic Cell
(3) Evidence for the Theory • Chloroplasts, Mitochondria, …. • Have their own fully developed cell membranes. • Have their own copy of DNA. • Can replicate themselves, all on their own. • They have their own ribosomes. • They produce their own proteins. • They can exist/survive on their own w/o a larger cell.
(4) Other Examples Like This… • Bobtailed Squid + Glowing Bacteria • Aphids + Digestive Bacteria • Spotted Salamander + Algae