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CSD 2230 HUMAN COMMUNICATION DISORDERS PowerPoint Presentation
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CSD 2230 HUMAN COMMUNICATION DISORDERS

CSD 2230 HUMAN COMMUNICATION DISORDERS

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CSD 2230 HUMAN COMMUNICATION DISORDERS

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  1. CSD 2230HUMAN COMMUNICATION DISORDERS Topic 6 Language Disorders Adult Disorders Central Nervous System Anatomy, Physiology, and Damage

  2. Neurons • Basic building block of the nervous system • Landmarks • Cell body • Nucleus • Dendrites • Axons

  3. Neurons • Functions • Efferent neurons-carry information away from the brain to the periphery • Motor neurons • Afferent neurons-carry information from the periphery to the brain • Sensory neurons • Interneurons

  4. Neural Communication • Neurotransmitters • Excitatory • Inhibitory • Action Potential

  5. Central Nervous System • Major landmarks • Cerebrum • Brainstem • Cerebellum • Spinal cord • Meninges • Cerebrospinal fluid

  6. Cerebrum • Left and right hemispheres • four lobes • frontal • temporal • parietal • occipital • gyri • sulci

  7. Cerebrum • Longitudinal fissure • Corpus callosum • CD ROM Ch 9.01 & Ch 9.02 • Lateral fissure • Central fissure

  8. Brainstem • Center of the Cerebrum • Basal Nuclei • Thalamus • Brainstem • midbrain • pons • medulla

  9. Cerebellum Connects to the brainstem by three pathways that allow for • Input of sensory info from the body • Output of signals for motor execution to the muscles • Input from the cerebrum for control of cerebellar function The cerebellum is important for balance and for coordinating various body movements.

  10. Spinal Cord • Peripheral Nervous System • Cranial Nerves • 12 pair • Specialized for sensory and/or motor functions • Spinal Nerves • 31 pair • Sensory and motor functions

  11. Hemispheric Specialization • Left hemisphere • sequential functioning • Speech and language • Broca’s area is important for the programming and movements for speech production. Damage results in problems in the planning and execution of speech movements • Wernicke’s area is critical for processing and understanding auditory information. Damage results in marked problems in auditory comprehension • Right hemisphere • holistic functioning • Facial recognition, comprehending and expressing emotion, musical ability

  12. Four Major Causes of Brain Damage • Stroke • Head injury • Infections and growths • Progressive degenerative diseases

  13. Stroke • Cerebrovascular accident • Embolus • Thrombosis • Hemorrage • Effects are immediate but there is a period of recovery

  14. Head Injury • Open head injuries • Closed head injuries • Severity and type of damage is variable

  15. Tumors • Space occupying lesions • Malignant • Benign • Interior or exterior surface of the brain • Symptoms usually include dizziness, headache, memory deficits, and generalized sensory and/or motor problems

  16. Progressive Degeneration • Multiple sclerosis • Parkinson’s disease • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) • Alzheimer’s disease