Bully Prevention In Positive Behavior Intervention and Support
Exceptional Children Division Behavior Support & Special Programs Positive Behavior Intervention & Support Initiative
Attention Signal • Used after a discussion or activity to gather participants and presenters together. • Presenter will raise a hand. • Participants should finish their thoughts/comments, raise a hand and wait patiently.
What is PBIS? Positive Behavior Intervention and Support • Clear, defined expectations • Direct instructions of expectations in context • System to recognize students meeting expectations • Instructive, effective consequences that exist on a continuum and as part of a tiered system of interventions • Use of data to make decisions and design solutions
5% CONTINUUM OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION AND SUPPORT FBA/BIP De-escalation Social Skills Mentoring Check In Self Management Classroom Based Intervention 15% 80% Defining & Teaching Expectations Routines & Procedures Reinforcement Systems Effective Consequences
Assumptions Schools that are interested in implementing bully prevention fall under the following criteria: • Universals implementation has begun. • Data indicates bullying should be addressed.
Today’s Goals • Define why bullying is worth addressing • Provide a comprehensive model for bully prevention • Describe core elements of UNIVERSAL level bully prevention • Demonstrate reduction in bullying and improved perception of school safety through data.
Rationale for Bully Prevention • The National School Safety Center (NSSC) called bullying the most enduring and underrated problem in U.S. schools(Beale, 2001). • Nearly 30 percent of students have reported being involved in bullying as either a perpetrator or a victim (Nansel, et al., 2001; Swearer & Espelage, 2004). • Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to skip and/or drop out of school (Berthold & Hoover, 2000; Neary & Joseph, 1994). • Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to suffer from underachievement and sub-potential performance in employment settings (Carney & Merrell, 2001; NSSC, 1995).
Rationale for Bully Prevention • 84.6% of LGBT students reported being verbally harassed, 40.1% reported being physically harassed and 18.8% reported being physically assaulted at school in the past year because of their sexual orientation(GLSEN, 2009). • Students on the autism spectrum are more likely to be victimized than their non-disabled peers (Little, 2002).
Rationale continued… North Carolina General Statutes • 115C-407.5 Bullying and harassing behavior • 115C-407.6 Policy against bullying or harassing behavior • 115C-407.7 Prevention of school violence • 115C-407.8 Construction of this Article
White House Conference on Bullying Prevention: 3/10/2011 Panel Members: Susan M. Swearer, University of Nebraska-Lincoln • Risk Factors Catherine P. Bradshaw, Johns Hopkins University • Teachers are not prepared on procedures to respond to bullying Justin W. Patchin, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire • Growing role of cyber-bullying George Sugai, Ph.D., University of Connecticut • Role of school-wide systems (PBIS) in preventing bullying Dorothy L. Espelage, University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign • Bullying and LGBT students and students with disabilities
Why prevention? • Involvement in bullying is a cross-cultural phenomenon (Jimerson, Swearer, and Espelage, 2010). • Bullying is NOT done by a small number of students who are socially and emotionally isolated. Bullying is common across socio-economic status, gender, grade and class (Bradshaw, et al., 2010).
What is Bullying? “Bullying” is repeated aggression, harassment, threats or intimidation when one person has greater status, control, or power than the other.
Typical Bully Prevention Most Bully Prevention programs focus on the bully and the victim. Which leads to several problems: • Bullying is inadvertently taught. • Bullies are blamed. • The role of bystanders are ignored. • Program results are ineffective over time.
Bully Prevention in PBIS School-wide Bully Prevention aligns with universal PBIS implementation: • All students learn behavior expectations, including the no bullying policy. • All staff reinforce students demonstrating expectations. • All staff address students not demonstrating expectations.
Foundations of Bully Prevention • Bullying behavior occurs in many forms, and locations, but typically involves student-student interactions. • Bullying behavior is often reinforced by: • Attention from bystanders • Reaction from victim • Access to resources • Self-reinforcement
Foundations of Bully Prevention Two key changes lead to prevention of bullying behaviors: • Reinforcements that follow bullying are removed. • Staff and students effectively respond to bullying behavior.
Bullying Prevention Model CONTINUUM OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION AND SUPPORT Bully & Victim Individual Support Additional and more frequent Role Play & Practice Teach School-Wide Expectations Teach & Reinforce Stop, Talk, & Walk 5%
Teach All Students Teach school-wide expectations • Students should be able to recognize respectful verses non-respectful behavior • Link concept of respect & responsibility to the most appropriate expectation. Teach how bullying is reinforced • Bullies gain attention • Bullies gain materials/activities Teach how to respond to non-respectful behavior • Say, “Stop” • Walk Away • Talk (Seek Help)
Teaching “Stop” • If someone is not being respectful toward you, tell them to “Stop!” • Because talking is hard in emotional situations… always include a physical signal to stop. • Review how the stop signal should look and sound. • Firm hand signal • Clear voice
Teaching “Stop” for Bystanders • If you witness someone not being respectful toward another person, tell them to “Stop!” • Because talking is hard in emotional situations… always include a physical signal to stop. • Review how the stop signal should look and sound. • Firm hand signal • Clear voice
Responding to “Stop” • Eventually, every student will be told to stop. When this happens, he or she should follow these three steps: • Stop what you are doing. • Take a deep breath. • Go about your day (no big deal). • This three-step procedure should be followed even when the student doesn’t agree with the “stop.”
Teaching “Walk” • Sometimes, even when students tell others to “Stop,” problem behavior will continue. When this happens, students are to "walk away" from the problem behavior. • Remember that walking away removes the reinforcement for bullying. • Teach students to encourage one another when they use the appropriate response.
Teaching “Walk” for Bystanders • Sometimes, even when students tell others to “Stop,” problem behavior will continue. When this happens, students may need help to "walk away" from the problem behavior. • Remember that walking away removes the reinforcement for bullying. • It is important to encourage other students to walk if the non-respectful behavior continues.
Responding to “Walk” • Students who are told to “Stop” may have a fellow student “Walk” away. When this happens, he or she should follow these three steps: • Stop what you are doing and stay where you are. • Take a deep breath. • Go about your day (no big deal). • This three-step procedure should be followed even when the student doesn’t agree with the “Stop” or the “Walk.”
Teaching “Talk” • Even when students use “Stop” and they “Walk” away from the problem, sometimes students will continue to behave inappropriately toward them. When that happens, students should “Talk" to an adult. • Report problems to adults.
Teaching “Talk” for Bystanders • Even when students use “Stop” and they help another student “Walk” away from the problem, sometimes students will continue to behave inappropriately toward them. • When that happens, students should help one another “Talk" to an adult. • Help report problems to adults, by being present with the victim while they talk to an adult, or by talking with an adult as a proxy.
Teaching “Talk” vs. Tattling There is a difference between tattling and talking. • Talking is when you have tried to solve the problem yourself, and have used the “Stop" and “Walk" steps first. • Tattling is when you do not use the “Stop" and “Walk" steps before talking to an adult. • Tattling is when your goal is to get the other person in trouble.
Responding to “Talk” When any problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific response sequence: • Reinforce the student for reporting the problem behavior (i.e. "I'm glad you told me."). • Ask who, what, when and where. • Ensure the student’s safety. • Is the bullying still happening? • Is the reporting child at risk?
Responding to “Talk,” cont. • Is there fear of revenge? • What does the student need to feel safe? • What is the severity of the situation? • "Did you tell the student to stop?" If yes, praise the student for using an appropriate response. If no, practice. • "Did you walk away from the problem behavior?" If yes, praise student for using appropriate response. If no, practice.
Responding to “Talk” When addressing the perpetrator: • Reinforce the student for discussing the problem behavior (i.e. “Thanks for talking to me.”) • Did _____ tell you to stop? If yes: “How did you respond?” If no: Practice the three-step response. • Did ______walk away? If yes: “How did you respond?” If no: Practice the three-step response. • Practice the three-step response (the amount of practice depends on the severity and frequency of the problem behavior). • For chronic perpetrators, a check-in effort might be implemented.
Reinforcing “Stop/Walk/Talk” • Effective generalization requires the prompt reinforcement of appropriate behavior the FIRST time it is attempted. • Staff should look for students that use the 3-step response appropriately and reward. • Students that struggle with problem behavior (either as victim or perpetrator) are less likely to attempt new approaches. • These students need reinforcement for attempting to implement the strategies.
Practice “Stop/Walk/Talk” Break into groups of four and designate roles. • Perpetrator, Victim, Bystander, and Teacher • Role-play a typical scenario utilizing the strategies. • Brainstorm potential pitfalls and solutions.
Implementing Bully Prevention • Universals must be in place. • Download Bully Prevention in PBIS Manual. • Elementary School Version • Middle School Version (can be used for HS, too, with modifications) • Plan to train all staff and students prior to implementing strategies.
In-school Coach • Takes the lead with implementation • Determines a school-wide “Stop” signal • Develops schedule for student Bully Prevention training (initial and follow-up) • Plans ongoing support of supervisors and teachers • Evaluates student outcome data (ODRs) • Uses an implementation checklist • Follows up with faculty • Works with the district to maintain efforts
Teacher Role • Read manual • Deliver initial lessons and follow up lessons • Practice with students • Report incidents • Respond to “Talk” as trained • Reinforce appropriate behavior • Give feedback to PBIS team
Administrator Role • Provide leadership for Bully Prevention Model • Read manual • Practice with students • Check in with students and staff • Report incidences • Reinforce staff and student behavior!
Research Support Scott Ross of University of Oregon has studied Bully Prevention at the elementary level. • Three elementary schools • Two students at each school with physical/social aggression at high rates • All staff taught with the Bully Prevention in PBIS manual • All students taught by staff • All playground personnel received implementation support
School 1 School 3 School 2 72% Reduction 1.88 .88 3.14 Baseline Acquisition Full BP-PBS Implementation Rob Bruce Cindy Number of Incidents of Bullying Behavior Scott Anne Ken 20 School Days
19% decrease 28% increase 21 BP-PBS, Scott Ross
22% decrease 21% increase 22 BP-PBS, Scott Ross
Summary • Manual available on Region 6 PBIS wiki and for all schools at www.pbis.org. • Establish school-wide expectations. • Teach students how to respond to behavior that is NOT respectful, rather than “responding to bullying.” • Provide extra review and pre-correction for students with more extensive need. • Provide support for staff implementation fidelity. • Collect and use data to improve implementation and impact. • Work with your coach and LEA coordinator to determine next steps.
Work Cited • Beale, A. V., & Scott, P. C. (2001, April). Bullybusters: Using drama to empower students to take a stand against bullying behavior. Professional School Counseling, 4, 300-305. • Berthold, K. A., & Hoover, J. H. (2000, January). Correlates of bullying and victimization among intermediate students in the Midwestern USA . School Psychology International, 21, 65-78. • Carney, A. G., & Merrell, K. W. (2001, August). Bullying in schools: Perspectives on understanding and preventing an international problem. School Psychology International, 22, 364-382. • Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2003). Bullying in American Schools A Social-Ecological Perspective on Prevention and Intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. • Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., & Ramani, P. S. (2001, April 16). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment . JAMA, 285, 2094-2100. • Neary, A., & Joseph, S. (1994, January). Peer victimization and its relationship to self-concept and depression among schoolgirls . Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 183-186.