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  2. You Are What You Eat?

  3. The old saying “you are what you eat” really does have some merit. • Of course …maybe not in the literal sense but if we let us ponder on this thought through out this lecture…..

  4. What Makes NUTRITION Optimal Today ? • FROM A GREAT NUTRITIOUS DIET??? • What Factors HURT Our DIET? • What Can Is Optimal In a NUTRITIOUS DIET? • What About Fad Diets? Why Not?

  5. But I Always Wanted To Be a Burger!!

  6. EXACTLY…WHAT IS A HEALTHY DIET?? A List To Guide Us A Healthy diet is one that is one that is… • Adequate (Contains all necessary nutrients) including Water . • Varied ( Strives to eat different types of each food group…greater vitamin pool) • Moderate ( Don’t overeat any one group or eat large portions) • Balanced (Not too much of one or too little of another food group but includes all of the food groups and the proper amounts) • Has Foods that are “Nutrient Dense” not “Nutrient Empty”. (How do you Know??) Natural Vs. Processed is one good clue…. • Based on Current Food Pyramid • Recap: A healthy diet include adequate nutrients and energy and includes sweets and fats in moderate amounts only. Its includes an appropriate balance of foods and wide variety of foods.

  7. So Then….It is….. A healthy diet include adequate nutrients and energy and includes sweets and fats in moderate amounts only. Its is includes an appropriate balance of foods and wide variety of foods

  8. Updated.. Food Pyramid:What is a “serving”? • Carbohydrate (6-11) • Vegetable (3-5) • Fruit (2-4) • Dairy (2-3) • Protein (2-3) • Fats/oil/sweets • Sparingly


  10. In Our Diet We Must Have: • MACRONUTRIENTS: Able to Provide Energy • Carbohydrates • Proteins 3. Fats • MICRONUTRIENTS: You Need Very Small Quantities 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals • Neither Macro or Micro… But A NURIENT WE NEED 6. Water (about 8 cups a day)

  11. A little about Macronutrients: • Carbohydrates • Short-term energy. • Carbohydrates power all basic cell function. • Lipids • Long-term energy storage. • Cell membrane structure and function. • Proteins • Proteins do the “work” that the cell needs. • 8 essential amino acids in humans.

  12. Carbohydrates • Its main function: Short-term energy storage. • Carbohydrates include all sugars. • Glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose. • Glycogen (storage CHO in your body) • Cellulose (structural CHO) • Starch (storage CHO in plants) • Fleshy fruits, vegetables, grains.

  13. Carbohydrates…. Empirical formula [CH2O] Monosaccharides

  14. Bonded Monosaccharides = ….Disaccharides

  15. Starch Storage of glucose by plants


  17. Glucose as a major source of energy for metabolism

  18. A Whole-wheat Pretzel; A Complex Carbohydrate

  19. The Ideal Carbohydrate: Complex and Unrefined (Whole Grain) • Complex Carbohydrate: This is a carbohydrate consisting of long chains (up to hundreds of sugar units). It takes much longer to digest than a short chain. • Ultimately ALL carbs are digested to glucose and released into the bloodstream. Once this occurs the pancreas releases the hormone insulin, which allows cells to take up glucose and use it for energy. The liver and muscle also take up glucose to provide carbohydrate storage in the form of glycogen. • do)

  20. Sources of Complex Carbs • Whole Grain Cereals • Brown Rice • Beans (Any Kind) • Peas • Corn • Whole Grain Breads • Vegetables (most)

  21. Glycemic Index • Glycemic index refers to the potential of foods to raise blood glucose levels. • Foods with a high GI cause a cause a sudden increase in blood sugar which triggers insulin secretion, which is often followed by a dramatic fall in blood sugar. • “Complexing carbs” lowers the overall GI.

  22. Glycemic Index

  23. Proteins • Essential for all cellular activities. • Hundreds of needed functions. ( Cellular Growth and Repair, Enzymes, Hormones and More) • Made up of amino acids. • 9 are “essential” in humans. • Again, the term “essential” means that you cannot make these, therefore you need to consume them. • Complete foods have all amino acids. • Protein deficiency. • What is a protein deficiency? How can you treat this?

  24. Essential Amino Acids • They are easily digested in animal products. • They can also be found in the proper combination of plant foods. • Strict vegetarians ( VEGANS) must be intelligent and persistent in their choices of plant foods.

  25. Why Do We Need Protein? • Cell Growth , Repair and Maintenance • Enzymesand other important Biomolecules These play roles in your body biochemistry. Ex; many hormones, antibodies, receptors are proteins. Hemoglobin. Secondary Energy Source- They are converted to carbohydrates (glucose). The protein has to be changed first. A piece of it is broken off and discarded as waste and makes up your urine.

  26. TO GET ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS YOU COMSUME COMPLETE PROTEINSWhat are the essential Amino acids? How many are there?

  27. Amino Acid Structure • Name some amino acids. • How do these amino acids differ? • How are they the same? (You may look now!) R-

  28. Most Vegetarians Are Not Strict But….Eat Animal Sources.. • Pesco-Vegatarians….Eat Fish • Ovo-lacto-Pesco…Eat Fish , Eggs and Dairy • Semi-vegetarism- • Animal Sources are COMPLETE PROTEINS

  29. If You Are A Vegan…… • Mutual Supplementation: the process or combining two or more incomplete proteins ( complementary proteins) to make a complete protein. Rice (Contains some essential AAs) Beans (contains other essential AAs) • Together they make a complete protein; you don’t have to eat them at the same time! The amino acids will pool in your bloodstream.

  30. Vegetarianism : Proven Health Benefits for this Diet!! • Cholesterol Levels are lower • Seldom have weight problems • Less Heart Disease • Less Incidence of Breast, Colon and Prostate cancers • Less Incidence of High Blood Pressure • Also, Fewer Cases of Osteoporosis!! ( We know eating me contributes to this one!

  31. Protein Deficiency is Serious Includes these symptoms but is not limited to: • Weight loss • Thinning or brittle hair, hair loss • Skin becomes very light, burns easily in the sun • Reduced pigmentation in the hair on scalp and body • Skin rashes, dryness, flakiness • General weakness and lethargy • Muscle soreness and weakness, cramps • Slowness in healing wounds, cuts, scrapes, and bruises • Headache • Nausea and stomach pain • Fainting

  32. However….. • We Seldom See PROTEIN DEFICIENCY IN THIS COUNTRY…. • We do SEE IT IN STARVING CHILDREN…….in underdeveloped countries!

  33. Too Much Protein….A Bad Thing??? Most Americans Meet or Exceed the RDA for Protein… Too Much Dietary Protein Can Be Harmful IS This true???


  35. EXCESS proteins & other nitrogenous compounds are broken down in the liver by a process called deamination. As a result of these reactions, a nitrogenous waste called UREA IN YOUR LIVER……

  36. The UREA is mixed with salts and excess water to form URINE our main nitrogenous wastes. Then in your Kidneys

  37. If You have a Pre-existing Condition • That is… A Kidney Condition ….Then • Eating a lot of Protein is detrimental and will contribute to your Kidney disease.

  38. What are the Consequences Too Much Protein For Healthy People? • Here’s What We Know

  39. Too Much Protein • Contributes to bone loss • Is Associated With High Cholesterol Levels ( LDLs) • These Two Factors Are Influential other disease like Type II Diabetes and Osteoporosis.

  40. What you eat influences your health.(Cardiovascular Disease) BEHAVIORALRISK FACTORS UNAVOIDABLERISK FACTORS Highbloodcholesterol Highbloodpressure Fatty diet Aging Lack ofexercise Family history CARDIOVASCULARDISEASE Smoking Being male

  41. What Are Fats? • Fats are part of a larger group of molecules called LIPIDS. Lipids do not dissolve in water. • 3 types of lipids:triglycerides,sterols and phospholipids. • Triglycerides have one molecule of glycerol backbone with 3 fatty acids attached. This is the smallest particle of food fat particle we eat.

  42. What Are Fats/Lipids? • These include fats, oils, and waxes. • Long-term energy storage. • Saturated vs. unsaturated fats. • They contain 9 kilocalories/ gram ( carbs/proteins have 4 kcal/gr) Without lipids, you cannot live: • Cell membranes, insulation of nerve cells, vitamins. • Essential fatty acids, cholesterol.

  43. The Food Pyramid:What is a “serving”? • Carbohydrate (6-11) • Vegetable (3-5) • Fruit (2-4) • Dairy (2-3) • Protein (2-3) • Fats/oil/sweets • Sparingly

  44. …..triglyceride

  45. Fats

  46. Hydrogenation of fats causes the “cis” formation to go to “trans” of polyunsaturated fats. These fats originally had several double bonds …..oil. TRANS FAT

  47. Percentage of saturated and unsaturated fats in food oils

  48. Essential Fatty Acids?