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MAJOR ACCIDENT HAZARD IN INDIA WITH GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES PowerPoint Presentation
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MAJOR ACCIDENT HAZARD IN INDIA WITH GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES

MAJOR ACCIDENT HAZARD IN INDIA WITH GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES

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MAJOR ACCIDENT HAZARD IN INDIA WITH GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES

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  1. MAJOR ACCIDENT HAZARD IN INDIA WITH GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES S.S. Gautam Director (IH) Central Labour Institute Mumbai 400022

  2. MAJOR ACCIDENT • An occurrence such as • major emission, fire or explosion • resulting from uncontrolled developments in the course of an industrial activity, • leading to a serious danger to man, • immediate or delayed, • inside or out side the establishment and • involving one or more dangerous substances.

  3. EVENTS & POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES • Releases • Toxic • Within the premises • Within and beyond the premises • Flammable with potential to explode • Within the premises • Within and beyond the premises • Confined or unconfined vapour cloud explosion • Pool Fires • With or without a potential of BLEVE

  4. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 1 minute after the start of release.

  5. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 2 minute after the start of release.

  6. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 3 minute after the start of release.

  7. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 4 minute after the start of release.

  8. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 5 minute after the start of release.

  9. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 6 minute after the start of release.

  10. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 7minute after the start of release.

  11. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 8 minute after the start of release. Release stopped

  12. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8Min Present scenario: 9 minute after the start of release.

  13. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 10 minute after the start of release.

  14. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 11 minute after the start of release.

  15. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 12 minute after the start of release.

  16. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 13 minute after the start of release.

  17. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 14 minute after the start of release.

  18. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 15 minute after the start of release.

  19. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 16 minute after the start of release.

  20. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 17 minute after the start of release.

  21. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Total release time 8 Min Present scenario: 18 minute after the start of release.

  22. GROWTH AND DECAY OF CLOUD Cloud cleared

  23. Plan View of contour at the ground Equal Concentration contour (Foot Print)

  24. DEVELOPMENT OF POOL FIRE Release from an atmospheric tank

  25. DEVELOPMENT OF POOL FIRE Spreading of vapours

  26. DEVELOPMENT OF POOL FIRE Contact with source of ignition

  27. DEVELOPMENT OF POOL FIRE Flash fire

  28. Pool Fire • Pool Fire: • A fire of an spilled pool of flammable or combustible substance with the risk of burns to persons or objects within or around the flames.

  29. TYPES OF FIRES • Flash Fire: • Ignition of a flammable gas/vapour and air mixture on finding a source of ignition.

  30. TYPES OF FIRES • Jet Fire: • Jet of flame formed due to instantaneously burning gas/ vapour.

  31. TYPES OF FIRES • BLEVE: • Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion

  32. TYPES OF FIRES • Unconfined vapour cloud Explosion: • A vaour cloud exploding in open air

  33. TYPES OF FIRES • Confined Vapour Cloud Explosion: • A cloud exploding in a buiding or confinement

  34. NEED FOR SPECIAL APPROACH • Superstar Technologies involving: • Combination of a number of factors. • Complex human components. • Interdependant, vulnerable and complex societies. • Rapid development of large scale technologies under economic pressures. • Devices scaled up by extrapolation without enough trial and error experience.

  35. Dilution of Responsibilities: • Multidisciplinary design-teams reduce the responsibility on any one person. • Specialisation is so high that the organisations have monopoly of expertise. • Difficulty of monitoring by Government inspectors.

  36. Increased awareness of public, NGOs & trade unions: • Intolerance among public • Development of associations and social activists • Trade unions getting more and more concerned on safety & health matters

  37. Vulnerability of high technology industries to failures: • Only one way to run the plant safety but numerous ways by which plant can lead into emergency. • Unforeseen dangerous effects.

  38. MAJOR HAZARD CONTROL • A well developed plan to prevent the major accident and develop the preparedness to mitigate the effects of such potential accidents.

  39. Site selection, Layout planning Design Erecting Commissioning Running Maintenance Modifications Emergency Preparedness for mitigation of on site and off site consequences. CONSIDERATIONS AT VARIOUS STAGES

  40. STAKEHOLDERS • Government • Town Panning • Environment • Pollution control • Industrial Development • District Administration • Industrial Safety & Health • Management • Workmen • Surrounding communities • NGOs

  41. MAHC SYSTEM IN INDIA • Manufacture Storage & Import of Hazardous Chemicals (MSIHC) Rules 1989 (with amendments in 1994 & 2000) • CIMAH Rules (State Factories Rules) similar to MSIHC Rules . • Identification of MAH installations. • Availability of Hazard Information to all concerned.

  42. MAHC SYSTEM IN INDIA (Contd.) • Reporting of Major Accidents. • On Site & Off site Emergency Planning. • Central, State, District and Local Crisis Groups to ensure off site emergency planning. • Safety Report. • Internal & external Safety Audits (Structured in line with EC Directives & Model CIMAH Regulations)

  43. DEVELOPMENT OF MAH SYSTEM IN INDIA • ILO-FRG Supported Project on 'Establishment and Initial operations of MAH system in India' from 1988 to 1990, which gave rise to notifications of • Manufacture & Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules 1989 under EP Act and CIMAH rules as part of state factories rules. • Identification of MAH installations was done during the project period, which kept updating since then.

  44. DEVELOPMENT OF MAH SYSTEM IN INDIA (Contd.) • A number of other documents were developed such as • model training manuals on the subject for: • Factory inspectors • Supervisors • Safety Trainers • Safety Committee Members • Guidelines for Inspectors of Factories for: • Inspection & prioritisation of MAH installations. • Evaluation of Safety Reports • Onsite & Offsite Emergency Planning etc.

  45. DEVELOPMENT OF MAH SYSTEM IN INDIA (Contd.) • Joint Inspections were carried out with experts from developed countries, Central Government and Factory inspectors.

  46. SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS • Amendments were brought in by Min. of Environment & Forest, Government of India, to cope up with the minor difficulties arising in enforcement: • 1. in 1994 • 2. In 2000

  47. ONGOING EFFORTS OF DGFASLI • A number of seminars, training Programmes, and consultancy activities are being done every year by central & regional labour institutes.

  48. ROLE OF NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (NDMA) • NDMA has included industrial disasters as one of the types of disasters that may take place and has issued a document for management of industrial disasters for use by local authorities while developing offsite emergency plans.

  49. APEL Seminars organised by National Safety Council with the assistance of USAID programmes • National Safety Council of India has collaborated with UNEP, World Environment Centre, USAID to popularise the concept of “Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APEL)”. In all 32 events had been conducted under this project covering w2ide varieties of programmes for different target groups.

  50. GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS • Release of Code of Practice by ILO in 1991, which included: • General provisions; • Components of a major hazard control system; • General duties; • Prerequisites for a major hazard control system; • Analysis of hazards and risks;