Operate a bar and clean and tidy bar SITHFAB001A SITHFAB002A
HISTORY OF BEER Beer is a general term for fermented liquors brewed from malted and unmalted cereals ( barley, wheat, rice, corn etc). It includes ales, lagers, pilsners, porters, bocks and stouts. History dates back 5,000 years to the Egyptians. The Germans and British tribes drank ale in the time of the Romans. In the 15th century hops were introduced from Germany to help stop the ale going sour.
BEER PRODUCTION • Barley • Steeped in water • Germinated • Dried by air • Ground in brew house • Mixed with water
BEER PRODUCTION 7. Wort boiled with hops and sugar 8. Wort cooled and fermented 9. Yeast added 10. Clarified 11. Stored and matured 12. Filtered 13. packaged
Important points about beer • Yeast used is either top fermenting or bottom fermenting. • Top fermenting yeast, gives you wheat beers, stouts, porter, and ales. • Bottom fermenting yeast gives you the lagers, pilsners and bock beers.
Beer facts and other important info • Alcohol of beer can range from a low alcohol beer at about 2.5%A.C.V. to a high of 12%A.C.V. for a Stout. • Boutique breweries such as Redoak, Paddy’s brewery and others produce the best beers. • Ice filtered relates to beer subjected to below freezing temperatures to remove unwanted protein. Beer is light in colour. • Jacksons on George street has over 100 beers to taste.
Beer pouring problems • Now days with the use of new beer taps and latest refrigeration systems problems are rare. • Beer can either be over heady or flat. • Most likely cause of heady beer is refrigeration system not on or faulty • Most likely cause of flat beer is dirty glasses or beer too cold.
Biggest imported beer brands • Corona • Heineken • Miller • Steinlager • Becks • Grolsch • Stella Artois • Budweiser • Carlsberg • Peroni
ALCOHOLIC STRENGTHS • The Guy-Lussac scale originated in France measures alcohol from 0- 100%A.C.V. • The American scale used in the U.S. Measures alcohol from 0- 200% Proof
SCOTCH WHISKY PRODUCTION • Malting -Barley selected -Steeped in water -Spread out on concrete floor to germinate -Process allows starch in barley kernels to convert to sugar Germination is stoped by drying the green malt by either peat or gas/electricity. Dried malt is then ground.
SCOTCH WHISKY PRODUCTION cont. 2. Mashing Ground dried malt is crushed with boiling water and vigorously churned. This completes the conversion of the soluble starch into maltose by extracting the sugar. The liquid produced is called the wort.
SCOTCH WHISKY PRODUCTIONcont. 3. Fermentation The wort is cooled and passed into vessels called washbacks. Yeast is added. Yeast attacks the sugar and converts it into a crude, weak alcoholic wash. 4. Distillation Malt whisky is distilled in a pot still. Grain whisky is distilled in a continuous still.
SCOTCH WHISKY PRODUCTIONcont. 5. Maturation Minimum of three years in either old Sherry cask, Bourbon casks or trials have been used where they use old wine casks such as Shiraz, Sauternes etc. 6. Blending The master blender can blend up to 50 different whiskies together to form one whisky.
Scotch Blended: malt whisky and grain whisky De luxe blend: higher percentage of malt whisky and grain whisky Malt whisky: 100% barley malt used For each of the above find three brand names.
Irish Whiskey • Irish whiskey has been produced for a few hundred years. • They use barley as their main grain. • They also use other grains and blend their whiskey. • The Irish triple distil their whiskey. • Irish whiskey has less peat aroma thus tends to be smoother • Jameson, Bushmills, Kilbeggan, Tullamore Dew are a few brands
Japanese Whisky • The Japanese love a good drink. In their economic hay day they bought up Scottish distilleries and hired the best distillers. • They make their whisky similar to Scotch. • Japanese whiskey is usually a blend • Suntory, Muromachi, Miyazaki Honten are a few brands
Other whisky producers • Australia • New Zealand • India All produce a whisky using the barley and other grains. These are small producers. Sullivans cove distillery in Tasmania produces some good Australian whisky.
Bourbon and other American whisky • The USA got all is distilling expertise from Scottish and Irish immigrants. • The only difference between the two is that in the USA the main grain used is corn. Normally 51% corn and the rest other grains. • This is because corn is native to the Americas.
Bourbon and other American whisky • Bourbon can be produced anywhere in the USA but mostly in Bourbon County, Kentucky. • Tennessee whiskey can only be produced in the state of Tennessee. • They use similar techniques to produce their product.
Terms for USA whisky • Small batch; means aging in selected small barrels. • Single barrel; comes from one selected barrel. • Sour mash; using some previously used yeast to start the new batch • Rye whisky; must contain 51% rye grain
Brands of USA whiskey • Stanahans Colorado whisky • Kentucky blended bourbon • Wild Turkey • Jim Beam, white, black, green, yellow, small batch • Cougar
Canadian Whisky • Mainly corn and wheat is used , but supplemented by rye and barley • Aged minimum 3 years • The use of both types of stills is permitted • Canadian Club and Seagrams are two brands
O.P AND U.P RUM O.P = Overproof is usually over 57% A.C.V. U.P = Underproof is around 40% A.C.V. Rum is a spirit made from sugar cane and molasses. The product goes through fermentation and is then distilled. Both Pot and Continues stills are used to produce Rum. Rum is either aged or it can be un aged or clear.
O.P AND U.P RUM continued Rum was first distilled in 1664, in America. It soon became popular and distilleries were set up all over the South American island countries. Rum was used in the slave trade, as a currency. Slave traders used to sell slaves for molasses and make rum. In 1807 a law was brought in to stop the slave trade. Soon after the American Public turned to American Whisky as their staple drink.
O.P AND U.P RUM continued Light rums: The molasses is diluted with water and then fermented. A column still is used to produce rum. Full bodied rums: Very similar to above but a pot still is used. This is then redistilled and matured in wood. Note: In Australia a minimum of two years wood age in needed for a dark rum.
O.P AND U.P RUM continued Rum has a range of uses from the famous rum and cola, created in Cuba over 100 years ago. To the Daiquiri, again from a Tin mining town in Cuba. It can be sipped straight, over ice, with milk or a variety of other mixes. Today you can get it pre mixed.
GIN Gin is a shortened version of the name Geneva which is the original name for this drink. Geneva is the Dutch word for Juniper, the main flavouring of the drink. Gin was first created to help people suffering from kidney and stomach complaints. In the 18th Century English soldiers returning from Holland created a lighter style of gin known as London Dry.
What is Gin? • Gin is a neutral spirit similar to Vodka. The only difference is that Gin is flavoured with; • Juniper berries, liquorice, angelica, ginger, cassis, lemon and orange peels. The actual recipe is secret for each gin. • Dutch Geneva: A heavy bodied, aromatic gin. Triple distilled spirit. • London Dry: Colourless, slightly sweeter gin, mainly drunk with tonic. Continuous still used.
The Perfect Martini The martini first saw light in the Knickerbocker Hotel, New York, circa 1910. The barman was actually called Mr. Martini. The purist Martini. 60ml Gordons Gin 3ml Dry Vermouth 1 Large green olive. Standard Martini. 4 parts Gin 1 part Dry vermouth 1 green olive
Vodka Vodka takes its name from the Russian name for water (voda). But the Poles claim they invented it in the 11th century. It wasn’t until the 16th century where it became a popular spirit. Vodka is the product of double distillation, with some Vodkas being triple distilled. Vodka is made from grain (wheat, rye, etc)
Vodka continued Vodka is not flavoured, it is clear and some say it is flavourless. Making it a great mixer and for cocktails. Some of the European Vodkas are flavoured with peppercorns, buffalo grass, cherries, citrus. Check out Van Gogh Vodkas, on www.vangoghvodka.com and see how many different Vodkas they have.
Vodka continued • Today Vodka has become a very popular spirit. It can be cheap (Cossack, Karloff, Tsarevitch) or very expensive,(Van Goth, Level 42, Grey Goose, Belvedere. Iceberg) • Some bars in the city dedicate a large section to Vodka. • Drink Vodka neat straight from the fridge.
Tequila Tequila is a spirit that originated from the province of Tequila in Mexico. It is made from the mescal plant which grows in naturally in the semi arid region of Mexico. In other parts of Mexico they produce Mescal, which is the same as Tequila but cannot be called this due to Mexican law.
Tequila continued • The mescal plant is grown to a mature age of 10 years then it is picked, cooked, sugar is then added with yeast and it ferments. Once it ferments it is double distilled. • Some tequila can be aged where it gains a golden colour, but most is not aged. • Service can be on the rocks, LICK, SIP, SUCK. Or in cocktails (Margarita, Tequila Sunrise etc.)
BRANDY • Brandy is the distilled product of a base wine, this can be red or white. • Brandy has been produced in Australia since the mid 1880’s. • In 1900 , 100,000 litres were sold • In 1970, 4 million litres were sold • Brandy can vary, depending on the types of grapes used, area where the grapes come from etc.
Brandy continued • Australian brandy needs two years in oak before bottling. • Most popular grape varieties used are Sultana, Doradillo, Grenache. • Copper pot stills and Continuous stills are used to produce brandy. • South Australia produces most of the brandy.
COGNAC • Cognac is a spirit distilled from grapes, made only in the Cognac region of France. In 1909 a decree was issued to define the Cognac region. • Wine had been produced in the Cognac region since the 3rd century. • Around the 16th century with the increase of worldwide trade, the wines of Cognac could not stand the long journeys. As a result they started distilling their wine.
COGNAC continued • Cognac is made from wine. The wine is double distilled and then it is aged. Approximately 3.5 litres of wine is needed to produce 750ml of Cognac. • The age of the Cognac varies, 3 years is the minimum and up to 50 years Cognacs can be found. • Cognac is blended to create the best available product.
COGNAC continued The Cognac region is divided into 6 growing regions from top quality to lesser quality. • Grand Champagne • Petite Champagne • Borderies • Fins Bois • Bons Bois • Bois Ordinaires
COGNAC continued The appellations of aging • Three star Cognac - min 2 years • V.S.O.P - min 4 years • Napoleon - min 6 years • X.O. - min 10 years Cognac producers Delamain pale and dry XO Hennessey VSOP Martell Cordon Bleu Remy Martin Extra
ARMAGNAC Armagnac is another kind of brandy. It comes from the Armagnac region of France, close to the Spanish Border. Armagnac is a full bodied and drier brandy. Good Armagnac is fruity and nutty. The oak used to age Armagnac comes from the local forests. When an Armagnac is five years old it can be labelled as XO.
ARMAGNAC continued Armagnac comes from the following three districts. • Bas Armagnac • Tenareze • Haut – Armagnac Vintage Armagnac bearing the date of a particular year are available.
LIQUEURS • Highly refined spirits with flavour and sugar added • Crème liqueurs have a higher proportion of sugar • Base • Neutral alcohol • Cognac/brandy • Whiskey flavours • Rum
LIQUEURS continued • Fruits • Orange (Curacao-orange,blue,clear) • Strawberry (Strawberry liqueur) • Melon (Midori) • Mandarin, lime etc • Herbs • Mint, sage, coriander, rosemary ( used in Chartreuse, Strega etc.)
LIQUEURS continued 6. Beans • Coffee ( Kahlua, Bundy liqueur) • Cocoa ( Crème de cacao) 7. Roots • Ginger, liquorice, angelica (Ginger liqueur, Sambuca) 8. Nuts • Hazelnut, almond, walnut ( Nocello, Frangelico, Amaretto)
Manufacture of liqueurs • Distillation • Peel and flavouring agents placed in still, covered with spirit and redistilled • Mixture of separate distillations
Manufacture of liqueurs • Flavour transfer • Percolation – spirit pumped over flavouring agents in a wire basket in the same manner as coffee is percolated • Maceration – flavouring agents soaked in spirit may then be redistilled
Manufacture of liqueurs • Flavour added • Oils or essences added to sweetened spirits
Liqueur Coffees • Use a stemmed glass, preferably with a handle • Present on a doilied side plate with a parfait spoon • Ask customer if they want sugar • You can either have this flamed or make it behind the bar (no flame)
Liqueur Coffees continued Variations of liqueur coffees Irish - Irish whiskey Jamaican- Tia Maria Mexican- Kahlua Roman- Galliano Parisienne- Cointreau Caprice- Grand Marnier, Kahlua, Cognac (15ml each)