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Intimate Terrorism and Other Types of Domestic Violence

Intimate Terrorism and Other Types of Domestic Violence

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Intimate Terrorism and Other Types of Domestic Violence

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  1. Intimate Terrorism and Other Types of Domestic Violence Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D. Sociology, Women's Studies, and African & African American Studies Penn State Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991 Texas Tech October 14, 2008 McKeesport, PA

  2. The Continuing Gender Debate • “It’s all men” vs. “Women do it just as much as men” • A small theory that reconciles the contradiction • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence • The three major types • Gender differences and sampling biases • Other differences • Implications for Research and Theory • Everything we “know” has to be re-assessed • Need for differentiated theory • Implications for Intervention • Screening/triage • Intervention with perpetrators • Support for survivors • Custody and access issues

  3. Agency Studies “Prove” ThatMen Are the Primary Batterers

  4. But General Surveys “Prove” That Women Are as Violent as Men

  5. A Small TheorythatReconciles the Contradiction • There is more than one type of partner violence • The different types of partner violence are differently gendered • And both major sampling plans are biased • Agency studies are biased toward coercive controlling violence, perpetrated almost entirely by men • General survey studies are biased toward situationally-provoked violence, which women are as likely to perpetrate as are men

  6. The Continuing Gender Debate • “It’s all men” vs. “Women do it just as much as men” • A small theory that reconciles the contradiction • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence • The three major types • Gender differences and sampling biases • Other differences • Implications for Research and Theory • Everything we “know” has to be re-assessed • Need for differentiated theory • Implications for Intervention • Screening/triage • Intervention with perpetrators • Support for survivors • Custody and access issues

  7. Intimate Terrorism Violent Coercive Control Violent Resistance Resisting the Intimate Terrorist Situational Couple Violence Situationally-provoked Violence Mutual Violent Control Two Intimate Terrorists

  8. Intimate Terrorism Subtypes: Emotionally dependent; Antisocial

  9. Control Scale Thinking about your current husband, would you say he… • …is jealous or possessive? • …tries to provoke arguments? • …tries to limit your contact with family and friends? • …insists on knowing who you are with at all times? • …calls you names or puts you down in front of others? • …makes you feel inadequate? • …shouts or swears at you? • …frightens you? • …prevents you from knowing about or having access to the family income even when you ask? NVAWS

  10. Intimate Terrorism Violent Coercive Control Violent Resistance Resisting the Intimate Terrorist Situational Couple Violence Situationally-provoked Violence Mutual Violent Control Two Intimate Terrorists

  11. Gender Symmetry/Asymmetryby Type of Violence(1970s Pittsburgh: Violent husbands and wives)

  12. The Biases of Major Sampling Plans(Violent men: Pittsburgh & Britain)

  13. Pittsburgh data Intimate Terrorism 76% severe 75% escalated 1/25 couples 29% mutual General Motive: To control the relationship Situational Couple Violence 28% severe 28% escalated 1/8 couples 69% mutual Situational Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc.

  14. British data Intimate Terrorism 43% severe 78% escalated 15% mutual General Motive: To control the relationship Situational Couple Violence 13% severe 20% escalated 87% mutual Situational Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc.

  15. Women’s Health Outcomes by Type of Male Violence

  16. Relationship Outcomes by Type of Male Violence

  17. The Continuing Gender Debate • ““It’s all men” vs. “Women do it just as much as men” • A small theory that reconciles the contradiction • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence • The three major types • Gender differences and sampling biases • Other differences • Implications for Research and Theory • Everything we “know” has to be re-assessed • Need for differentiated theory • Implications for Intervention • Screening/triage • Intervention with perpetrators • Support for survivors • Custody and access issues

  18. We Need to Re-assess Everything • Intergenerational “transmission” (Stith et al.; Johnson & Cares) • SCV: d = .11 IT: d = .35 • SCV: odds ratio = 2.40 IT: odds ratio = 7.51 • Marriage (Macmillan & Gartner) • SCV: b = -.62 IT: b = .58 • Gender traditionalism (Sugarman & Frankel) • SCV: d = -.14 IT: d = .80 • Hostility toward women (Holtzworth-Munroe et al.) • Non-viol, SCV = 154, 153 IT, IT = 135, 131 • Gender, frequency, severity, escalation, mutuality, impact on victim, impact on children, etc.

  19. Need for Differentiated Theory • Intimate terrorism • Coercive control theory • Gender theory • Theories of paternalism • Violent Resistance • Coping • Entrapment • Situational couple violence • Family conflict theory • Communication • Anger management • Substance abuse

  20. The Continuing Gender Debate • “It’s all men” vs. “Women do it just as much as men” • A small theory that reconciles the contradiction • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence • The three major types • Gender differences and sampling biases • Other differences • Implications for Research and Theory • Everything we “know” has to be re-assessed • Need for differentiated theory • Implications for Intervention • Screening/triage • Intervention with perpetrators • Support for survivors • Custody and access issues

  21. Screening/Triage • Different models appropriate for different clients • To screen we need information on both control and violence for both partners • Safety first! • Safety planning—as if you were dealing with intimate terrorism • If SCV seems likely, try individual application of other approaches • If SCV and safety become clear, move to couple approaches with protections in place

  22. Intervention with Perpetrators Outcomes of Duluth-type Batterer Intervention Program (Thirteen Months Post-adjudication) Eckhardt et al. 2008

  23. Success of Different Intervention Strategies by IT Sub-type(Percent non-violent two years after completing treatment)

  24. Intervention with PerpetratorsHold them all accountable in the criminal justice systemto provide an essential motivation for change • Intimate terrorism • Control-focused education • Perhaps different tactics for sub-types • Violent resistance (Support for survivors) • Alternatives to violence • Neutralize the entrapment • Situational couple violence • Source of conflict • Anger management • Communication counseling • Substance abuse rehab

  25. Support for Survivors • Intimate terrorism • Safety planning • Long-term support • Alternatives to violent resistance • Empowerment to leave • Transitional support • Situational couple violence • Source of conflict • Anger management • Communication counseling • Substance abuse rehab

  26. Custody and Access Issues • Separation instigated violence • Manipulative accusations • Resources for thorough evaluation • Custody/access options • No contact • Supervised access • Supervised exchanges • Parallel parenting, minimal couple contact • Joint custody/Co-parenting

  27. We make big mistakes if we don’t make big distinctions. Different types of partner violence have… • Different causes • Different developmental trajectories • Different effects • Different successful intervention strategies

  28. Support Your Local Women’s Shelter Safety Support Information Advocacy Philadelphia, PA