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Compensation in HPAI control: An update on good practice

Compensation in HPAI control: An update on good practice

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Compensation in HPAI control: An update on good practice

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  1. Compensation in HPAI control: An update on good practice Anni Mc Leod and Patricia Mc Kenzie on behalf of a multi-disciplinary, multi-agency team October 9, 2007

  2. Outline • Background • The Bamako Report • Operational Plans • Results • Next steps • Sustainability of funding • Evidence of impact on reporting • Implications for other diseases

  3. Background

  4. The Bamako report

  5. The approach • Multi-disciplinary, multi-agency (collaboration between World Bank, FAO, OIE, and IFPRI) • Review of rich published OECD literature, developing country grey literature • Staff interviews, experience • Field visits to Indonesia, Egypt and Vietnam

  6. Outline of Report • The context for compensation • Who to compensate • Types of losses to compensate • Levels and timing of compensation • Boosting awareness • Organizing payment • Transition as disease becomes endemic

  7. After Bamako • The policy framework had been set by the report. Countries have asked for assistance to implement it. • Operational manualsdescribing the implementation of compensation schemes have been elaborated for the Palestinian Territories, for Armenia, Nigeria, Bosnia& Herzegovina, Kosovo, Albania.

  8. Main Results

  9. Effective Schemes • Compensate the appropriate beneficiaries an appropriate amount • With only a short interval between reporting, culling and payment • Require considerable advance prep • Require financial, institutional and human resources • Much harder to do AFTER disease outbreaks

  10. Preparedness is Key • Legislation that spells out the rights and responsibilities of individuals and various State actors in animal disease control • A broader disease control strategy in place • Prior agreement among stakeholders on who, when, how and how much • Resources for implementation that are immediately available for response

  11. State of preparedness • Over 90% of European and Central Asian countries and 52% of countries in Africa have compensation programmes. (UN system and World Bank forthcoming report). • Far fewer have operational plans (8 countries) • An operational plan describes the stages of the compensation scheme and identifies the responsible persons at each of the stages of the plan. Generally from 0 (pre-outbreak) to 12 (confirmation of funds cashed by farmer)

  12. Identification of Beneficiaries • The owners of the animals culled • (other losers from the disease outbreak typically not compensated by a disease control program) • Complications: • Contract farmers often compensated for labor input to flock culled • Ensuring actual decision-makers are involved (such as farm wives in some cases) • Lack of info on smallholder flocks

  13. Losses to Compensate (1) • Direct losses are the ones compensated in whole or in part • Birds destroyed • Disinfection/disposal where practical • Consequential losses on farm typicallynot compensated: downtime, impact of movement controls, price declines—hard to do and costly

  14. Losses to compensate (2) • Indirect losses off farm are by far the largest losses (3 to 4 times direct plus consequential losses) • Lost input sales, lost tourism, etc. • Never compensated by disease control programs, as not part of incentives for compliance • Can be insured against where risks are well-known (e.g. OECD countries?)

  15. Losses currently included • Payment for birds culled (all countries) • Payment for dead birds (few countries) • Payment for feed destroyed(some countries) • Support payment for restocking (Viet Nam) • Consequential and indirect losses not compensated. • Growing interest in cost-sharing schemes and insurance schemes.

  16. Compensation Rates (1) • Based on pre-outbreak market prices as fixed % of a periodic average market price (not production costs or budget availability) • Big market price drops during/post outbreak but usually full recovery in a few months • Need a regularly collected price series with procedures to adjust back to farm gate (allows flexibility if price declines persist)

  17. Compensation Rates (2) • Set relevant categories in advance, as simple as possible: e.g. broiler, layer, duck, native chicken • High value special cases an issue • Rates should be >50%, and ideally between 75% and 90% of market • Avoid influx of healthy birds for culling from outside and selling off of diseased birds: important to control movement

  18. Establishing rates • The proportion of countries which compensate more than 50% has increased in all regions, except for MENA and the Americas. Reported to have increased from 60 to 65% of countries. (UN System and World Bank forthcoming report).

  19. Establishing Awareness • Communication should be 10-20% of total disease control budget • Awareness of issues and options by all in chain key to success • Requires advance preparation of messages and diffusion • Requires chain of command for health oversight of messages combined with professional communication skills

  20. Progress with communication • Has been limited..... • A round table in March 2007 identified this as an issue to be addressed by Animal Health Communication programmes

  21. Organizing Payment (1) • Response has been most rapid when national budgets have contingency line items of 3 to 5% of total budget. • Forecast compensation needs in % of market value of national flock : • 1% where little trade and institutions strong • 5% most developing countries; beyond this level strategy shifts to reduce culling • 10% upper limit, applicable if trade w/o vaccination is a major issue

  22. Organizing Payment (2) • Prep includes cross-provincial arrangements and cross-ministry coord. • Pre-existing data base of eligible parties is key to rapid response and governance • Large scale commercial have records and bank accounts that simplify issues • Payment in cash of smallholders within 24 hours of culling; vouchers OK if good rural post offices or other institutions

  23. State of funding • Donor support for compensation has increased • But one issue often raised by countries is sustainability of compensation since it is generally externally funded (ie by the WB) • Funding sources at national level need to be established to sustain the system • There is an issue of efficiency. It tends to be more efficient to manage the fund from the MoA/L but this appears to clash with WB / IMF recomendations

  24. Governance • Major concern for most governments and their partners, can delay response • Problem is worst where preparation in advance of an outbreak is least, as prior agreements, arrangements and stakeholder buy-in are needed • Where outbreaks occur in an unprepared institutional environment, ex post audits substitute for ex ante institutions and procedures, but not fully

  25. Progress with payment and governance • Time frames for payment range from 3-4 weeks in operational manuals • In practice, these have been improving, down to 7 days after culling e.g Turkey, Albania and Bosnia • Some countries still have delays up to 3 weeks after culling

  26. Next steps

  27. Most critical needs • Continue to assist countries to establish their operational plans • Address the question of sustainable sources of funding – private/public sector cost sharing; insurance schemes • Explore most efficient disbursement methods (e.g. faster transfer to MoA) • Greater empowerment and use of social accountability mechanisms

  28. Medium term steps • There is a need to evaluate the effect of compensation on reporting • The broader issue of funding of animal health systems • There is a need to distill lessons learned from external audit reports and operational audits

  29. Thank you