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Goal Perspective Theory

Goal Perspective Theory

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Goal Perspective Theory

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  1. Goal Perspective Theory Chapter 6

  2. Achievement Goal Orientations • Task Orientation (mastery) • Ego Orientation (competitive)

  3. Other Goal Orientations • Some researchers have identified additional goal orientations: - Goal to avoid embarrassment or defeat. - Social Approval goal orientation.

  4. Developmental Nature of Goal Orientation • 2-6 Years of Age (task orientation) • 7-11 Years of Age (ego orientation) • 12 Years of Age and Older (varies)

  5. Developmental Stages: Differentiating • Undifferentiated Goal Perspective (effort, ability and outcome are same). • Beginning to Differentiate. • Greater Ability to Differentiate. • Differentiated Goal Perspective (effort, ability and outcome are different).

  6. Measuring Goal Orientation • Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ; Duda, 1989). • Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ; Roberts, 1993). • Sports Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ, Hill, 1993).

  7. Goal Involvement • Goal Orientation Relates to an Individual’s Disposition to be either Task or Ego Oriented. • Goal Involvement is Situation Specific, and Relates to how an Individual Responds to a Specific Achievement Situation.

  8. Motivational Climate • Mastery Climate • Competitive Climate

  9. Characteristics of a Mastery Climate • Athletes receive positive reinforcement from the coach for: - Hard work and improvement. - Demonstrating cooperation. - Believing that every athlete’s contribution is important.

  10. Characteristics of a Competitive Environment • Athlete perceives that: - Poor performance is punished. - High-ability athletes get the attention. - Competition among athletes is encouraged.

  11. Importance of Motivational Climate and Mastery Goal Orientation • Motivational climate influences both goal orientation as well as goal involvement. • Over time, a mastery climate can cause an athlete to become more task-goal oriented.

  12. Goal Orientation and Moral Functioning • Moral functioning is linked with good or bad sportspersonship. • Research links high levels of moral functioning with a task goal orientation. • Research links low levels of moral functioning with an ego goal orientation.

  13. Characteristics of Task and Ego Goal Orientation • Adaptive Motivational Patterns – Athletes engage in challenging tasks that allow them to demonstrate persistence and sustained effort. • Maladaptive motivational patterns – Athletes do not want to engage in a challenging task if they believe they can’t be successful.

  14. Adaptive Motivational Patterns • Generally exhibited by task goal oriented athletes. • Can be exhibited by ego goal oriented athlete as long as they have a high perception of personal ability.

  15. Maladaptive Motivational Pattern • Primarily exhibited by an ego goal oriented individual who has a low perception of his or her own ability.

  16. Goal Orientation and Motivational Climate Interaction • High Task Orientation in Combination with a High Mastery Climate Expected to Yield Best Results. • Low Task Orientation in Combination with High Competitive Climate Expected to Yield Worst Results.

  17. Ego Goal Orientation All Bad? • Numerous studies have demonstrated that a high level of ego goal orientation can be good. • Because the two constructs are independent, the best combination of goal orientation may be to be high in both task and ego goal orientation. • Perceived low ability in combination with a high ego goal orientation leads to maladaptive motivational patterns.

  18. Goal Perspective Theory Chapter 6