Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Goal #1: Cell Theory PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Goal #1: Cell Theory

Goal #1: Cell Theory

163 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Goal #1: Cell Theory

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Goal #1: Cell Theory

  2. Dutch fabric merchant. Amateur Scientist. Made the first microscope. 1600’s Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

  3. Leeuwenhoek looked at: BloodPond WaterPlaque Results: He discovered microorganisms He was the first person to see a living cell

  4. Before the microscope people believed diseases were caused by curses or supernatural spirits.

  5. Robert Hooke • English Scientist • Museum Caretaker 1665

  6. Thin slices of cork. He looked at:

  7. Results: • Observed nonliving cells. • Came up with the name “cells”.

  8. Matthias SchleidenGerman Botanist

  9. SchleidenLooked atPlant Cells & Parts Results: He made the statement… “All plants are made up of cells”.

  10. Memory Trick: ”Matt Shleiden to a tree!”

  11. Theodor SchwannGerman Zoologist

  12. Schwann looked at animal cells & parts Results: He made the statement… “All animals are made up of cells”.

  13. Memory Trick: ”The Schwann is an animal!”

  14. Rudolph VirchowGerman Doctor

  15. What he Looked at: Used the microscope to look at all kinds of cells. Results: Stated that all cells come from other cells

  16. Cell Theory • All living things are made of cells. • Cells are the basic (smallest) units of structure of living things. • All cells come from other cells.

  17. Goal #2: Prokaryotespro = beforekary = nut/kernel (nucleus)ote = type

  18. Prokaryotic Cells Do not contain a nucleus or any membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic Cells Contain a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles Two Types of Cells

  19. The first cells… • Prokaryotic cells are believed to be the first cells that existed. • It is believed that this occurred when genetic material (DNA) became lumped together and sealed into tiny packages – called cells. • Later on, prokaryotes would be “swallowed” by larger cells and would form the nucleus of the larger cells, known as eukaryotic cells. Don’t Write This!

  20. Eukaryotic cells are 1 to 100 times bigger than prokaryotic cells.

  21. The genetic material (DNA or RNA) floats around loose in the jelly-like cytoplasm The cell is held together by the cell membrane (like a water balloon) Genetic material Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Ribosomes

  22. ROUND ROD SPIRAL

  23. Prokaryotes are very small organisms made of 1 prokaryotic cell. • Ex) Bacteria • They are microscopic! (cannot be seen without the aid of a microscope)

  24. Escheria coli Food poisoning

  25. Streptoccus aureus Strep Throat

  26. Staphylococcusaureus Staph Infection

  27. Neisseria meningitidis Meningitis

  28. Goal #3: Eukaryoteseu = truekary = nut/kernel (nucleus)ote = type

  29. Eukaryotic cells – cells that have a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles • Plants • Animals • Fungi • Protists

  30. Eukaryotic cells have… Organelles • Structures in eukaryotic cells that perform certain functions for the cell

  31. Cell Membrane • Flexible outer covering of the cell. • Has tiny holes & gates to control what goes in or out of the cell.

  32. Cytoplasm • Clear thick, jelly-like fluid. • Supports cell’s organelles • Fills up the space between the cell membrane and the nucleus. • It is constantly flowing.

  33. Nucleus • Largest organelle in the cell. • The control center of the cell. • Contains the directions for making proteins. • Contains the genetic material

  34. Chromatin • Stringy material spread throughout nucleus – uncoiled chromosomes • Consists of DNA bound to protein • Contains instructions for making protein

  35. Chromosome • Wound up chromatin structures that contain DNA • Only present in cell during cell division

  36. Protein Transport Chain • A cell’s job is to make protein • That protein is produced in the nucleus and shipped out to other cells

  37. Nucleolus • Small round object found in the nucleus • Place where ribosomes are made.

  38. Ribosomes • Small round structures found on ER and scattered throughout the cytoplasm • Place where protein is made.

  39. NuclearEnvelope (Membrane) • Double-membrane layer around nucleus • Contains tiny pores • Allows materials to move in and out of the nucleus

  40. EndoplasmicReticulum • Two types: • Smooth ER (no proteins on surface) • Rough ER (proteins on surface – like sprinkles!) • Tunnels in the cytoplasm. • The transport system used to get protein from one part of the cell to another.

  41. Golgi Apparatus • Smooth, stack-like membranes. • Protein is sent here from the ER and is packaged for shipment out of the cell.

  42. Other Organelles • Much more happens in a cell besides protein production and transport • Many other organelles are present and have their own function within the cell! Don’t Write This!

  43. Mitochondria • Bean shaped. • Has 2 membranes • Place where sugar is broken down. • Supplies energy to the cell. • The “powerhouse” of the cell.

  44. Centrioles • Tube made of many smaller “microtubules” • Assist during cell division – only present during division

  45. Cilia & Flagella Cilia short hair-like projections from cell surface

  46. Cilia & Flagella Flagella Long whip-like projections Both help the cell to move

  47. Lysosomes • Small round structures filled with enzymes – found only in animal cells. • The “clean up crew”. • Dissolves old cell parts.

  48. Cell Wall • Rigid, Strong outer covering of a plant cell. • Helps protect and support the cell. • Made of cellulose (fiber).