Chapter 6: Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems Notes Can Also Be Found at www.manskopf.com
Chapter 6 Notes Goal • Explain what biomes and aquatic ecosystems are • Explain how biomes are characterized. • Describe how net primary productivity varies among biomes. • Give an introduction to your Biome Project • Give an example of your Biome Project
Things Change? • Fossil evidence suggests that the frozen continent of Antarctica was once covered in temperate forest.
Earth’s Biomes • Groups of terrestrial ecosystems that share biotic and abiotic conditions • 10 primary biomes: • tropical rain forest • dry forest savanna • desert • temperate rain forest • temperate forest • temperate grassland • chaparral • boreal forest • tundra
Climate: Average conditions, including temperature and precipitation, over long periods of time in a given area • Weather: Day-to-day conditions in Earth’s atmosphere • Climatographs: Diagrams that summarize an area’s average monthly temperature and precipitation • Each biome has a set of characteristic organisms adapted to its particular climate conditions.
Productivity • Net primary production: The amount of organic matter (biomass) that remains after primary producers use some to carry out cellular respiration • Ecosystems vary in their net primary productivity, the rate at which primary producers convert energy to biomass. • Warm, wet biomes generally have higher net primary productivity than cold, dry biomes.
Earth’s productivity: On land forests are highly productive in dark green, deserts least in brown. At sea, red indicates high productivity and deep oceans dark blue.
Aquatic Ecosystems (Wet Biomes) • 75% of Earth’s surface is covered by water.
Salinity: the amount of dissolved salt present in water. Ecosystems are classified as salt water, fresh water, or brackish depending on salinity. • Photosynthesis tends to be limited by light availability, which is a function of depth and water clarity. • Aquatic ecosystems are either flowing or standing. • Aquatic ecosystem zones: photic, aphotic, benthic
Aquatic Ecosystem Limiting Factors • Limiting factors may include: • Salinity • Ph • Sunlight • Dissolved oxygen • Temperature
Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland Seas Salinity is less than 0.5 ppt (parts per thousand)
Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands • Areas of land flooded with water at least part of the year • Include freshwater marshes, swamps, bogs, and fens
Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams Bodies of surface water that flow downhill, eventually reaching an ocean or inland sea Delaware Water Gap
Estuaries • Occur where a river flows into the ocean or an inland sea • Coastal estuaries are brackish ecosystems; organisms must tolerate wide salinity and temperature ranges. • Coastal estuaries are home to salt marshes and mangrove forests.
Oceans • Intertidal Areas • Neritic Zones • Open Ocean
Chapter 6 Review • Explain what biomes and aquatic ecosystems are • Explain how biomes are characterized. • Describe how net primary productivity varies among biomes. • Give an introduction to your Biome Project • Give an example of your Biome Project
Biome Project Online http://www.manskopf.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/BiomesProject.230105729.doc
Biome Project PowerPoint Example • Temperate Rain Forest • JUST AN EXAMPLE – 2-5 minutes • Remember 60% for information • Also found at www.manskopf.com
Temperate Rain Forest For Mr. Manskopf Environmental Science Class By Mr. Manskopf November 2011
Temperate Rainforest…Where on Earth? • Small Biomes in Area • Small Pockets Around World
Temperate Rain Forests Locations • Mid-Latitudes • Usually near coastline • Largest found in Pacific Northwest of U.S. and British Columbia in Canada
Climate of the Temperate Rain Forest • WET, Year Round Rain • Moderate Temperatures
Species Found In Temperate Rain Forest TREES: • Cedars, Spruce, Hemlock, Douglas Fir • Grow Tall/Fast • Evergreens • Coniferous Trees (seed-bearing cones) • Compete for sunlight • Commercially important
Species Found In Temperate Rain Forest • Damp conditions perfect for moss • Slugs • Numerous amphibian creatures • Squirrels • Deer • Elk
Species Found In Temperate Rain Forest Limiting Factors • Sunlight • Too much precipitation (Precipitation in Olympic's rain forest ranges from 140 to 167 inches (12 to 14 feet) every year.)
Threats • Timber/Logging
Example Hoh Rain Forest http://www.nps.gov/olym/naturescience/temperate-rain-forests.htm
Temperate Rain ForestCites • http://www.nps.gov/olym/naturescience/temperate-rain-forests.htm • https://biomesfirst09.wikispaces.com/Temperate+Rainforest+Home • http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/temprain.htm