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Phenolic Resins and Phenolic Molding Compounds

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  1. Phenolic Resins and Phenolic Molding Compounds Greg Spaeth Project Engineer, Materials Engineering Laboratory Plastics Engineering Company Presented at 2013 SPE Thermoset Division TOPCON

  2. Phenolic Resins

  3. Phenolic resins are synthesized in a pressure vessel by repeatedly linking phenolic monomers with aldehyde chemicals Typically phenol and formaldehyde Other phenols include Cresol Cashew nutshell oil Another aldehyde used Furfural Process variations can result in a assortment of resin structures each demonstrating a wide range of properties

  4. There are Two Types of Phenolic Resins Novolac Molar excess of phenol Require an external curing agent TwoStage Usually hexamethylenetetramine or “Hexa” Two year shelf life Resol Typically there is a molar excess of formaldehyde Do not require an external curing agent Single Stage Six month shelf life

  5. Phenolic Molding Compounds

  6. Phenolic Molding Compounds Phenolic Molding Compounds are produced by compounding various fillers with Phenolic Resin Typical Formula 50 % Phenolic Resin, resol or novolac 45 % filler Woodflour Minerals, talc, clay, ATH, etc. Cotton Glass Fibers Carbon Fibers or graphite powder 5 % colorants and lubricants Carbon Black Zinc Stearate

  7. The Oil and Natural Gas Mining Process as a Case Study for Phenolic Materials

  8. A well begins by drilling a large diameter hole extending below the fresh water

  9. A surface casing is inserted to isolate fresh water and support the blow out preventer

  10. Cement is pumped into the casing

  11. The cement is forced out of the casing and up the well hole sealing of the aquifer

  12. Wiper Plugs and Darts Phenolic Core Over molded rubber shell

  13. Why Phenolic Molding Compounds? The molded phenolic core provides superior strength and rigidity to enable the wiper plug to withstand the high pressures involved in forcing hundreds of cubic feet of concrete through the well casing High Modulus provides stiffness and stability for the darts mandrel core and tighter griping for the elastomer wiper segments Heat resistance allowing plugs rated for use at 400ºF Easy drill out with small debris

  14. The wiper plug is then drill out and the production well is drilled.

  15. Production casing is lowered It takes more than 350 casings weighing more then 85 tons to case a 10,500 foot well

  16. Cement is once again pumped into the well

  17. Again using a wiper plug the cement is force back up the well securing the casing

  18. Fracturing the well then begins by lowering a perforation gun down the well casing

  19. Small shaped explosives blast holes through the casing, cement, and into the formation

  20. Fracturing fluid is pumped into the well

  21. The fluid under extreme pressure causes the formation to fracture

  22. Resin Coated Proppant Sand Fracturing fluids varies among regions and well types, but typically consists of water (90+%) proppant (9%) and chemicals (<2%)

  23. Resin Coated Proppant Sand Once the fracturing fluid is removed, the phenolic resin coated sand remains behind and works as a prop to keep the fissures from sealing on release of pressure

  24. Why Phenolic Resin? Phenolic’s high modulus and excellent heat and creep resistance resists fracture under pressure as proven in industry “Conductivity test”

  25. Why Phenolic Resin? Chemical Resistance harsh chemicals found down hole can attack various proppant including ceramic proppant Curable Proppant Enables the proppant to remain in place in wells with high pressure flow

  26. The now fractured portion of the well is sealed off using fracturing ball

  27. Fracturing Balls

  28. Fracturing Balls

  29. Why Phenolic Molding Compound? Phenolic Balls offer an excellent combination of chemical and heat resistance with superior tensile and compressive strength compared with other plastic balls. Customizable formulations allowing a specific gravity range of 0.8 to 3.5+

  30. The perf gun is again lowered and detonated

  31. The perf gun is again lowered and detonated Again fracturing fluid is pumped into the well to fracture the new section of the well while the already fractured section is isolated by the frac ball

  32. Fracturing Balls

  33. Perforation and well fracturing is repeated as often as needed

  34. Once fracturing is complete the balls are usually drilled or floated out

  35. Surface equipment is put in place

  36. Well begins production

  37. Valve Components

  38. Valve Components

  39. Why Phenolic Molding Compounds? Strength, rigidity, dimensional stability, creep resistance A phenolic back-up ring allows internal pressure to anchor the seat within the valve body and prevents seat walking Non-collapsible, stretch resistant, blow out proof, field replaceable Non-collapsible, stretch resistant, blow out proof, field replaceable Chemical resistance and high hardness Provide valve components that resists corrosive environments and do not deform under pressure allowing for repeated ball sealing

  40. Other Applications Corrosive coatings for Storage tanks, semi tank trailers, railroad tank cars, fans blowers, and fin tube coils Binder for Friction pads, brake pads, grinding wheels, plywood and particle board Wear Resistance Gas meter valves, pump seals, caster wheels Dimensional Stability &Thermal Performance Brake pistons, transmission parts, electrical motor brush cards Electrical insulation terminal strips, commutators, capacitor cans and caps

  41. Offshore Applications

  42. Why Phenolic Resin? Superior Creep Resistance Strength and stability under load Low weight high strength and modulus Strength and rigidity Chemically Resistant Harsh marine environment Excellent flammability resistance and low smoke and toxicity Increased level of safety High carbon and char yield Retains level of strength and integrity should fire break out

  43. Phenolic Properties Chemical Resistance Transmission oil,150ºC (302ºF) Salt water, 65ºC (150ºF) Beach, 65ºC (150ºF) Unleaded gasoline, 22ºC (72ºF) E85 Unleaded gasoline, 22ºC (72ºF) SAE 30 Motor oil, 150ºC (302ºF) Propylene glycol, 100ºC (212ºF) Crude oil, 22ºC (72ºF)

  44. Phenolic Properties Chemical Resistance

  45. Phenolic Properties Chemical Resistance

  46. Phenolic Properties Chemical Resistance

  47. Phenolic Properties Chemical Resistance

  48. Phenolic Properties Chemical Resistance

  49. Phenolic Properties Comparison of Phenolic molding compound to engineering grade thermoplastics Thermoplastics 20% fiber glass filled ABS 20% fiber glass filled Acetal 20% fiber glass filled PPA 20% fiber glass filled PPS 20% fiber glass filled Nylon66 Phenolic Molding Compound Glass and mineral filled PLENCO 06404 glass and mineral filled PLENCO 02311 general purpose woodflour filled Data for PLENCO materials available from, all thermoplastic data from overview average values

  50. Phenolic Properties Hardness Data for phenolic and PLENCO materials are approximated from E scale Data for PLENCO materials available from, all thermoplastic data from overview average values