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ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT

ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT

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ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT

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  1. Question Teachers Should Ask… . . . in addressing the assessment needs of Students with Disabilities: Who are the children we characterize as "Students with Disabilities"? Does the nature of these special youngsters alter the kinds of curricular aims they are supposed to be pursuing? What should a teacher's curricular expectations really be for Students with Disabilities? How much latitude, if any, do teachers have in altering the assessments to be used with these children? What specific accommodations can teachers use when testing Students with Disabilities? Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 1

  2. Definition of ‘Students with Disability’ (SWD) • As defined by IDEA, the term “Child with a Disability" means “a child with • mental retardation • hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments • visual impairments (including blindness) • serious emotional disturbance • orthopedic impairments • autism • traumatic brain injury • other health impairments • specific learning disabilities • who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services” • –The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142) of 1975 and the Individuals withDisabilities Education Act (IDEA) (P. L. 101-476) Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 2

  3. Definition of SWDExpanded • "For children ages 3 through 9, the term 'child with adisability' may, at the discretion of the state and the local education agency, include children who are experiencing developmental delays in one or more of the following areas: • physical development • cognitive development • communication development • social or emotional development • adaptive development” –IDEA Amendments of 1997 (P.L. 105-17) Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 3

  4. Criteria for Receiving Special Education Services In order to receive SPED services, children must • have the condition verified • and the need for services documented by an Individual Educational Plan (IEP) or “504 Plan" Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 4

  5. “Specific Learning Disability” Defined as “A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to • listen • think • speak • read • write • spell • do mathematical calculations” – Knoblauch, B. & B. Sorenson. (1998). IDEA’s definition of disabilities. ERIC Digest E560 ERIC Identifier: ED429396 Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, April 1998 http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-4/ideas.htm Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 5

  6. The Term “Specific Learning Disabilities” Does Include • “This term includes such conditions as • perceptual disabilities • brain injury • minimal brain dysfunction • Dyslexia • developmental aphasia.” – Knoblauch, B. & B. Sorenson. (1998). IDEA’s definition of disabilities. ERIC Digest E560 ERIC Identifier: ED429396 Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, April 1998 http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-4/ideas.htm Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 6

  7. The Term “Specific Learning Disabilities” Does NOT Include • “Children who have learning problems that are primarily the result of • visual • hearing • motor disabilities • mental retardation • environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage” –Knoblauch, B. & B. Sorenson. (1998). IDEA’s definition of disabilities. ERIC Digest E560 ERIC Identifier: ED429396 Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, April 1998 http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-4/ideas.htm Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 7

  8. A Question of Access SWD Children Have to the Curriculum • “Does the nature of these special youngsters alter the kinds of curricular aims they are supposed to be pursuing?” Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 10

  9. The Answer. . . • IDEA (P. L. 105-17) sends a strong message about the school's responsibility to include students with disabilities in the general education classroom and curriculum –IDEA [Section 614(d)(1)(A)(iii)]. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 11

  10. Accommodated Access • “with accommodations when necessary;” –IDEA [Section 614(d)(1)(A)(iii)]. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 12

  11. Curricular and Extra-curricular Inclusion • "...to be involved and • progress in the general curriculum...and • to participate in extracurricular and • other nonacademic activities; and... • to be educated and participate with other children with disabilities and nondisabled children...” –IDEA [Section 614(d)(1)(A)(iii)]. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 13

  12. In a word… “Inclusion.” Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 14

  13. A Question of ‘Realistic Curricular Expectations’ • “What should a teacher’s curricular expectations realistically be for Students with Disabilities?” Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 15

  14. The Range of Curricular Expectations from too High • "If too high, are we being cruel to students who struggle more than usual with life?" Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 16

  15. . . . to too low • "If to low, are we failing to help Students with Disabilities achieve their full potential?" Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 17

  16. “Realistic Curricular Expectations” Mean • All students can learn • in a learning progressionwithin their ‘zone of development’ • with the general education targets clearly and ultimately in mind Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 18

  17. Definition of ‘Students with Disability’ (SWD) • That the general education curriculum appropriate to each student is. . . • The learning progression that is ultimately targeted to the general education outcome • Within the student’s current zone of development • Not too easy • Not too hard • Independent with instructional scaffolding continuously and appropriately provided Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 19

  18. Activity One This activity will help you answer the essential question: “How is an extended standards curriculum in math or reading aligned with academic standards in the general education curriculum? 1 Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 20

  19. Curriculum, Instruction, and Now Assessment • “How much latitude, if any, do teachers have in altering the assessments to be used with these children?" Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 22

  20. Activity two 2 This activity will help you answer the essential question: How does a teacher determine the curriculum and test type most appropriate for students?” Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 23

  21. Determine Appropriate Curriculum and Test Type • General Education Curriculum • General Education Assessment • Modified Assessment • Extended Standards Curriculum • Alternate Assessment Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 24

  22. Differentiated Instruction • Interactions between teacher and student allow for: • Individual student ownership • with access most adaptive to the student’s preferred learning style and modality • in a setting most conducive to the student’s best work Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 25

  23. Accommodations Provide equitable access during instruction and assessments but do not reduce learning expectations Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 26

  24. How to Adapt to the Student’s Learning Needs • without compromising content rigor • without making the student overly dependent on the teacher's intervention Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 28

  25. How to Determine Accommodations • Consider how students successfully access the curriculum on a regular basis in the • presentation • response • timing and scheduling • Setting of instruction Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 29

  26. The Key Distinction • The nature of a curriculum target • = “the construct” being tested. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 30

  27. Third Grade Reading Comprehension Target • Standard:the student ‘reads and comprehends text across the curriculum.' • Benchmark:the student 'comprehends a variety of texts,' and the • Indicator for Assessing that Standard: ‘the student 'uses information from the text to make inferences and draw conclusions.' Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 31

  28. Changing the Construct • The “construct” of inferential reading comprehension is that the student independently infers meaning from written (or Brailed) text. • If the student hears the text being read, the student’s inferential comprehension is now “re-constructed” by a change from ‘written’ inferential processing to ‘oral’ inferential processing. • The construct of reading is changed. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 32

  29. Activity three 3 This activity will answer the essential question: How does the use of a particular manipulative or instructional aid alter a test construct? Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 33

  30. “Modifications” vs “Accommodations” • “Modifications” change the construct of the content standard, reducing the rigor • “Accommodations” • Mediate the effects of a student’s disability • provide access to the content standard, maintain the rigor but • provide a different way to it Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 35

  31. Effect of Accommodations on the Curriculum • Curriculum remains intact • The construct is left un-changed • Expectations for learning are not reduced Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 36

  32. Deciding Accommodations • So how does a teacher decide what accommodations are sufficient • to provide access to the general education content standard • without modifying, or reducing, the rigor of the standard? Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 37

  33. Activity four 4 This activity will help you answer the essential question: What accommodations are typically provided students during instruction at the grade level I teach? Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 38

  34. Accommodations • On a regular basis during instruction • In the least restrictive way • Provide access to curricular content • By the way the teacher presents the curriculum • With opportunities to respond in a variety of ways • At times and with schedulesmore accessible • In a setting most conducive to best work Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 39

  35. Accommodation Categories • Presentation • Response • Timing/Scheduling • Setting Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 40

  36. Accommodation by Modalities • visual • large print • magnification devices • sign language • tactile • Braille • tactile graphics • auditory • human reader • audio tape or CD • audio amplification • multi-sensory presentations • video tape and descriptive video • screen reader • visual cues, journals and graphic organizers • written notes or outlines Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 41

  37. Activity five This activity will help you address the essential question: How do I determine what accommodations are not permitted for my students on a particular district or State test? 5 Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 42

  38. Caveat #1 • Not all accommodations used during instruction are permitted on state assessments • For example, a screen reader is not allowed on any Kansas State Assessment –(See Kansas Accommodations Manual, January 2009, p. 12) • Classroom posters and teacher or student-generated journals are also not allowed on the Kansas State Assessment –(See 2009-2010 Kansas Assessment Examiner’s Manual, p.33) • Check your state and local district guidelines for lists of allowable accommodations on state and local assessments Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 43

  39. Evaluate the Accommodation • Results for assignments and tests when the accommodation was used and when it was not used • Student’s’ perceptions of how well an accommodation worked for him or her • Effective combination of accommodations • Difficulties experienced when using the accommodation • Information from parents, teachers, and specialists about how the accommodation has worked Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 44

  40. Activity six This activity will help you answer the essential question: How do I determine what manipulatives are not permitted for my students on a particular district or State test? 6 Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 45

  41. Some Typical Manipulatives Typical manipulatives include but are not limited to. . . • Base 10 blocks • Chips, two-color counters, two-sided counters • Clock or clock face • Color tiles or squares • Cubes, multilink, connecting, color, wooden, unfix, multilink cubes • Cuisenaire rods • Geoboards • Geometric solids • Graph paper • Hundreds chart • Integer number line • Money • Number cubes • Pattern blocks • Rulers, meter sticks, protractors, compass • Snap blocks • Spinners • Transparent mirror or mira –2009-2010 Kansas Assessment Examiner’s Manual, p. 33. Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 46

  42. Activity seven 7 This activity will help you answer the essential question: How can I determine what classroom materials are not permitted for my students on a particular district or State test? Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 47

  43. Instructional Aids • graph paper • blank paper • Calculators • computational or fact tables • Textbooks • Dictionaries • other instructional/curricular material Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 48

  44. Caveat #2 • Some instructional aids permitted on all parts of norm-referenced, state, or local assessments • Some instructional aids permitted on some parts of norm-referenced, state, or local assessments • Some instructional aids not permitted on any part of norm-referenced, state, or local assessments • Check examiner’s manuals and assessment policy statements for guidance Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 49

  45. Responsible Use of Test Aids • Used on a regular basis during instruction before the test • Not introduced for the first time in a test situation • Used solely at the discretion of the student • Use not required or manipulated by the teacher or test proctor - the student chooses Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 50

  46. Activity eight 8 This activity will help you answer the essential question: How do I best prepare students with disabilities for district and State tests? Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 52

  47. Same as for Gen Ed Students but Even More Necessary Preparing SWD for Testing • Test Approach Skills • Good nutrition • Adequate sleep • Relaxation techniques • Test-taking skills. • Reading all options • Knowing the meaning of phrases like “find the one that is different” and “which one comes next in the following sequence?” • Test preparedness • Understanding the purpose of the test • Knowing what items appear on the test • Understanding directions and scoring procedures specific to the test • Direct instruction and practice linked to the test to be taken. –Elliott, J. L., Thurlow, M. L. & J. E. Ysseldyke. (2003). Testing Students with Disabilities. 2nd Edition. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press). p. 23 Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 53

  48. Students with Disabilities Can Experience Much Success when they • receive careful test preparation • persue learning progressions aligned with general education academic outcomes • have access to a balanced use of • accommodations • Manipulatives • classroom materials that recognizes their ownership and independent functioning as learners Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 54

  49. Their teachers. . . will be successful, as well! Kansas State Department of Education ASSESSMENT LITERACY PROJECT 55