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To learn about the shapes of the s, p and d orbitals To review the energy levels and orbitals of the wave mechanical PowerPoint Presentation
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To learn about the shapes of the s, p and d orbitals To review the energy levels and orbitals of the wave mechanical

To learn about the shapes of the s, p and d orbitals To review the energy levels and orbitals of the wave mechanical

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To learn about the shapes of the s, p and d orbitals To review the energy levels and orbitals of the wave mechanical

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  1. Objectives • To learn about the shapes of the s, p and d orbitals • To review the energy levels and orbitals of the wave mechanical model of the atom • To learn about electron spin

  2. A. The Hydrogen Orbitals • Orbitals do not have sharp boundaries. 90% boundary

  3. A. The Hydrogen Orbitals • Hydrogen Energy Levels • Hydrogen has discrete energy levels. • Called principal energy levels (electron shells) • Labeled with whole numbers • Energy is related to 1/n2 • En = E1/n2 • Energy levels are closer together the further they are from the nucleus

  4. A. The Hydrogen Orbitals • Hydrogen Energy Levels • Each principal energy level is divided into sublevels. • Labeled with numbers and letters • Indicate the shape of the orbital

  5. Orbital Designations

  6. Orbitals Define the Periodic Table

  7. A. The Hydrogen Orbitals • Hydrogen Energy Levels • The s and p types of sublevel

  8. Representation of s, p, d atomic orbitals

  9. A. The Hydrogen Orbitals • Hydrogen Orbitals • Why does an H atom have so many orbitals and only 1 electron? • An orbital is a potential space for an electron. • Atoms can have many potential orbitals. • s, p, d, f orbitals named for sharp, principal, diffuse and fundamental lines on spectra. Further orbitals designated alphabetically

  10. s p d d f f f g g g g

  11. B. The Wave Mechanical Model: Further Development • Electron Spin • Close examination of spectra revealed doublets • Need one more property to determine how electrons are arranged • Spin – electron modeled as a spinning like a top • Spin is the basis of magnetism

  12. B. The Wave Mechanical Model: Further Development • Pauli Exclusion Principle • Pauli Exclusion Principle (Wolfgang Pauli 1925) - an atomic orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons and those 2 electrons must have opposite spins • When an orbital contains two electrons (of opposite spin) it is said to be full What are the four descriptors that define an energy level / electron’s position in an atom?