What is a consonant? • There are 24 consonant sounds. • There are also allophonic variations. • Consonants are produced by vocal tract constrictions to modify the flow of air as it passes through the oral and/or nasal cavities. • The tongue is the primary articulator of consonants • There are some consonants that do not use the tongue in their production
Resonant consonants • Resonant consonants (resonants) are produced with resonance occurring throughout the entire vocal tract. They are all voiced. • Nasals • Glides • Liquids • http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html
Nonresonant consonants • Nonresonant consonants (obstruents) have the sound source (noise/turbulence) created at the point of constriction in the oral cavity, formed by articulators, as air flows through the supralanryngeal system. • Resonance does not occur throughout the vocal tract, it occurs in the portion of the vocal tract anterior to the constriction formed • Stops • Fricatives • Affricates
Nonresonant consonants • Voiceless obstruents - sound source is at the point of constriction /s, f, t, k/ http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html • Voiced obstruents /z,v,d,g/ - vibrating vocal cords provide secondary sound source, creating a modulation of the breath stream coming from the lungs • http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html
Other characteristics of consonants • Generally shorter than vowels • Comprise the smallest part of syllables because they are shorter • Length of any phoneme varies in relation to • Stress of syllable • Phonemic context • Importance of the meaning of a word in an utterance • Consonants have less intensity – perceived not as loud as vowels
Other characteristics of consonants • Consonants do not stand alone for meaning. • Positions • Prevocalic • Postvocalic • Intervocalic • Some consonants have the ability to become syllabic – that is, the nucleus of a syllable.
Classification of Consonants • Manner of Production -The way in which the airstream is modified as it passes through the vocal tract.
Classification of Consonants • Stop – articulators completely impede the airstream passing through the vocal tract.
Classification of Consonants • Fricative – are produced by forcing air through a narrow channel formed by the articulators in the oral cavity
Classification of Consonants • Affricate – characterized as having both a fricative and a stop manner of production
Classification of Consonants • Nasal – produced with complete closure in the oral cavity along with a lowered velum to allow airflow through the nasal cavity
Classification of Consonants • Glide - continued, gliding motion of the articulations into semivowels /j/ and /w/
Classification of Consonants • Liquid – generic label used to classify two English approximant consonants, spoken or articulated without friction
Classification of Consonants • Place – where in the vocal tract is the constriction located during the production of a particular consonant
Classification of Consonants • Bilabial • Labiodental • Interdental • Alveolar • Palatal • Velar • Glottal
Classification of Consonants • Voicing – whether or not the vocal folds are vibrating during the production fo a particular consonant.