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Assessment of/for Learning Through Differentiation

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  1. Assessment of/for Learning Through Differentiation First District RESA July 2008

  2. Our Legacy: Assessment for Student Motivation • To get students to learn, you demand it • Play on student anxiety • Use assessments as intimidation • Manipulate assessments as rewards and punishments • Provide a rank order of students • Promote competition

  3. Results Confidence Learn Responsibility Character Lifelong Success Grows How to succeed Internal Compliant Learner

  4. Result Confidence Learn Responsibility Character Lifelong Failure Wanes No hope External Rebellious Search for success Losers

  5. New Mission: Build Competency • Honor reality that students learn at different rates • Establish clear targets, worth achieving, and within reach • Driving force of collaboration and success • Number of students who can succeed is unlimited

  6. Results Confidence Learn Responsibility Character Lifelong Credible success Confidence grows I can succeed Within me I am responsible Confident learner Winners

  7. Assessment for Motivation • Clear, student friendly targets • Accurate assessments • Effective communication

  8. Three Types of Needed Assessments • Pre-assessments – Design this after summative assessment • Formative – Identify these last • Summative – Design this first

  9. Choose a theme or context to focus a unit

  10. Africa – Its Land and Its People What must students learn? (Knows ) How will students demonstrate they can use what they learned in a meaningful way? (Dos)

  11. Be Selective! • Choose standards that have the greatest impact on proficiency and growth at any given level • “Unwrap” or “Unpack” those standards to build the unit plan and final assessment • Which of the elements are being introduced? • Which of the elements are recurring and may need to be assessed to a proficient level?

  12. Grade 7 Social Studies Standards SS7H1: The student will identify important African empires. • Describe the development of African empires including Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Ethiopia. • Explain the importance of cities such as Timbuktu as a center of learning, Djenne as one of the oldest cities in Africa, and Zanzibar as a center of commerce • Describe the significance of Sundiata, Mansa Musa, and Zara Yakob. SS7G1: The student will be able to describe and locate the important physical and human characteristics of Africa. • Describe and locate major physical features; include Sahara, Savannah, Sahel, Topic Rain Forest, Congo River, Nile River, Zambezi River, Niger River, East African Mountains (Ethiopian Highlands), Drakensberg Mountains, Atlas Mountains, Kalahari Desert, Lake Tanganyika, and Lake Victoria. • Describe and locate the nations of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Rwanda, Mozambique, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Mali, Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Kenya, and Chad.

  13. SS7G3: The student will explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, natural resources, and population size on African countries. • Describe the impact location has on countries such as Chad, Egypt, and South Africa, with regard to trade, migration, agriculture, and industry. • Explain the impact of physical features such as deserts, mountains, rivers, and proximity to the ocean have on countries such as Ethiopia, Sudan, and Morocco. • Explain the distribution of natural resources in Africa and how that has affected the development of countries such as Chad, Sudan, and South Africa. • Describe the effect the Sahara, Sahel, Savannah, and tropical rain forest have on where people live, the type of work they do, and transportation. SS7G4: The student will describe the cultural characteristics of different people who live in Africa. • Describe the religions, customs, and traditions of the Arab, Ashanti, Bedouin, Khoikhoi and the San, Ibo, and Swahili ethnic groups. • Explain the major artistic and music forms of people in the region.

  14. Mark or star concepts on your overall list that must be reflected in the final assessment for the unit • Remember that not all concepts are created equal

  15. Grade 7 Social Studies Standards SS7H1: The student will identify important African empires. • Describe the development of African empires including Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Ethiopia. • Explain the importance of cities such as Timbuktu as a center of learning, Djenne as one of the oldest cities in Africa, and Zanzibar as a center of commerce • Describe the significance of Sundiata, Mansa Musa, and Zara Yakob. SS7G1: The student will be able to describe and locate the important physical and human characteristics of Africa. • Describe and locate major physical features; include Sahara, Savannah, Sahel, Topic Rain Forest, Congo River, Nile River, Zambezi River, Niger River, East African Mountains (Ethiopian Highlands), Drakensberg Mountains, Atlas Mountains, Kalahari Desert, Lake Tanganyika, and Lake Victoria. • Describe and locate the nations of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Rwanda, Mozambique, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Mali, Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Kenya, and Chad.

  16. SS7G3: The student will explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, natural resources, and population size on African countries. • Describe the impact location has on countries such as Chad, Egypt, and South Africa, with regard to trade, migration, agriculture, and industry. • Explain the impact of physical features such as deserts, mountains, rivers, and proximity to the ocean have on countries such as Ethiopia, Sudan, and Morocco. • Explain the distribution of natural resources in Africa and how that has affected the development of countries such as Chad, Sudan, and South Africa. • Describe the effect the Sahara, Sahel, Savannah, and tropical rain forest have on where people live, the type of work they do, and transportation. SS7G4: The student will describe the cultural characteristics of different people who live in Africa. • Describe the religions, customs, and traditions of the Arab, Ashanti, Bedouin, Khoikhoi and the San, Ibo, and Swahili ethnic groups. • Explain the major artistic and music forms of people in the region.

  17. Circle/ underline the verbs in the chosen standards and elements • Students must demonstrate the elements at this level on the quizzes, chapter tests, performance tasks, academic prompts, and other assessments for this unit • Students must demonstrate the standards at this level on the summative assessment

  18. Grade 7 Social Studies Standards SS7H1: The student will identify important African empires. • Describe the development of African empires including Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Ethiopia. • Explain the importance of cities such as Timbuktu as a center of learning, Djenne as one of the oldest cities in Africa, and Zanzibar as a center of commerce • Describe the significance of Sundiata, Mansa Musa, and Zara Yakob. SS7G1: The student will be able to describe and locate the important physical and human characteristics of Africa. • Describe and locate major physical features; include Sahara, Savannah, Sahel, Topic Rain Forest, Congo River, Nile River, Zambezi River, Niger River, East African Mountains (Ethiopian Highlands), Drakensberg Mountains, Atlas Mountains, Kalahari Desert, Lake Tanganyika, and Lake Victoria. • Describe and locate the nations of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Rwanda, Mozambique, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Mali, Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Kenya, and Chad.

  19. SS7G3: The student will explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, natural resources, and population size on African countries. • Describe the impact location has on countries such as Chad, Egypt, and South Africa, with regard to trade, migration, agriculture, and industry. • Explain the impact of physical features such as deserts, mountains, rivers, and proximity to the ocean have on countries such as Ethiopia, Sudan, and Morocco. • Explain the distribution of natural resources in Africa and how that has affected the development of countries such as Chad, Sudan, and South Africa. • Describe the effect the Sahara, Sahel, Savannah, and tropical rain forest have on where people live, the type of work they do, and transportation. SS7G4: The student will describe the cultural characteristics of different people who live in Africa. • Describe the religions, customs, and traditions of the Arab, Ashanti, Bedouin, Khoikhoi and the San, Ibo, and Swahili ethnic groups. • Explain the major artistic and music forms of people in the region.

  20. Cautions • Scope-and-sequence approaches will not maximize student growth in a standards-based and data driven world • Published materials are resources to use in a unit, but are not the unit • A teacher who lists 15 elements/standards or a series of numbers/letters will not get the same results as those who are selective and focused

  21. “Chunking” Segment the learning into key concepts and combinations of concepts that need to be taught by dividing a topic of study into logical portions of learning

  22. Chunk learning by critical thinking level and skill load. • Historical development of African Empires • Importance/significance of their major cities • Major physical features of Africa • Description and location of nations in Africa • Impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, natural resources, and population size on African countries • Religions, customs, traditions, and major artistic and music forms of people in the region

  23. Determine the optimal sequence of these concepts and layering of learning. • Major physical features of Africa • Historical development of African Empires • Importance/significance of their major cities • Description and location of nations in Africa • Impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, natural resources, and population size on African countries • Religions, customs, traditions, and major artistic and music forms of people in the region

  24. Performance and thinking can be verified through ongoing formative assessment. • formative assessment that tells us whether the student has reached the desired level of critical thinking and use of the concept • during and at the end of each chunk of learning in a unit • Learning that may need to be differentiated does not occur quite as conveniently as daily lesson planning would lead us to believe. • Some chunks will take only one day • Most chunks of a unit will take multiple days or even longer

  25. Unit Skills: How will students demonstrate they can use what they learned in a meaningful way? • Skills are the demonstrations of student learning necessary to provide the rehearsal and learning for the final assessment. • All of these skills will be needed for the final assessment in some form and to some degree.

  26. What is Mastery?

  27. Mastery is… • more than knowing information, but manipulating and applying that information successfully in other situations. • defined by the Center for Media Literacy in New Mexico, “If we are literate in our subject, we can access (understand and find meaning in), analyze, evaluate, and create the subject or medium.”

  28. Three Types of Needed Assessments • Pre-assessments – Design this after summative assessment • Formative – Identify these last • Summative – Design this first

  29. Pulling it together to design summative • It is imperative that teachers think in terms of the unit plan before developing any lessons or activities. • The challenging and thought-provoking concepts help us create the final assessment at the standard level. • Simpler concepts may help build understanding throughout the chunks of learning within a unit (the element level). • More difficult concepts may provide the framework and categories for the simpler concepts. Key Concepts: What must students remember and be able to use, even after this unit?

  30. When we are thinking of the summative assessment, we should be considering the transfer and personal meaning-making of the information.

  31. Summative only assesses transfer if… • Student is drawing from a repertoire for a complex task • Teacher gives minimal cues, prompts, graphic organizers • Learner is mindful of a particular context – the setting, audience, purpose, etc.

  32. Effective Summative Assessments “The tests must involve situations new to the student…Ideally we are seeking a problem which will test the extent to which the individual has learned to apply an abstraction in a practical way.” Bruner, Process of Education

  33. ELEMENTS Measuring Skills Scientific Method STANDARD/BIG IDEA How do plants thrive? Develop a brochure for the local nursery… Plant parts

  34. Learning and Cognition “Students develop flexible understanding of when, where, why, and how to use their knowledge to solve new problems if they learn how to extract underlying principles and themes from their learning exercises.” Bransford

  35. Unit Assessments: Authentic performance-based assessments are the best types for unit-level summative assessments. • A well-written prompt and set of directions • A rubric form and scoring • Models or templates to assist the student in proficient performance

  36. Warning • It is not acceptable to modify and differentiate the standards unless the student has a special education or English as second language plan that legally allows us to differentiate and accommodate the standards for an individual learner. • The rest of the class must be held accountable for the same standard, concepts, and demonstrations of final learning. • How we get there, with what resources, at what rate, and with what guidance and tools is another matter.

  37. Summative Assessments: Culminating Projects • Complex challenges that mirror the issues and problems faced by adults • Range in length from short-term tasks to long-term, multistaged projects • Yield one or more tangible products • Yield one or more performances • The evaluative criteria and performance standards are known in advance and guide student work

  38. Critical Features of Culminating Projects • At key junctures in a course or grade level • Demonstrate independent understanding through explanation, application, interpretation, and self-knowledge • Simulate real-world, adult tasks • Typically require extended time to complete • Require product and, usually presentation • Typically provide choice of products or formats • May be individual or group effort

  39. GRASPS • Goalsfrom the real world • Roles that are authentic and based in reality • Audiencesto whom students will present final products and performances • Situationsinvolving a real-world conflict to be resolved, decision to be made, investigation to be completed, invention to be created, etc. • Productsand Performanceswhich culminate from the study and provide appropriate evidence of understanding • Standardsfor evaluating project-based products and performances

  40. Culminating Project: 7th Grade Social Studies • Imagine that you are visiting Africa during the rise of such nations as South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Rwanda, Mozambique, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Mali, Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Kenya, and Chad. You like it so much that you decide to start a business – an agency – to help nomadic tribes settle in an ideal area for the development of a promising nation. Since you brought your expert knowledge on Africa’s land and people with you, you feel that you can help your first clients, Nellie and Norman Nomad (and their very extended family), become a part of one of the newly established nations. You must convince them, in a proposal, why they will benefit from becoming a part of a prosperous nation as opposed to remaining nomadic. • Your Proposal (include the following things in your proposal) • Name of the nation you select for them • Characteristics (physical, economical, and cultural) that make this nation great • Historical development of the nation, stemming from the roots of African empires • Impact that physical features, location, and distribution of natural resources of the nation may have on their daily lives in this area • How they will be contributing, as a part of that nation, to later African history • Other nearby important cities that would be attractive vacationing spots, explaining their significance to Africa • Write your proposal and also include some pictures or drawings that will help convince the Nomads to settle in your chosen nation (and therefore pay you!). You will give a 2 minute presentation to the Nomads (aka teacher) in class.

  41. Goal: The goal is to relate enough information about the physical features, cultural characteristics, historical development, and other nearby significant cities to convince the nomads to settle in the African nation of your choosing. Role: Somewhat like a real-estate agent Audience: Nomads (teacher) Situation: You are visiting Africa when nations were developing, so you see opportunity to make money acting as an agent by promoting nations based on their growth, development, features, and impact that location and distribution of resources may have on the nation. Product and Performance: Proposal (with pictures or drawings) pitching your chosen African nation and 2 minute presentation in class Standards: Rubric for content and presentation

  42. Components of an Effective Culminating Project Goalsfrom the real world Roles that are authentic and based in reality Audiencesto whom students will present final products and performances Situationsinvolving a real-world conflict to be resolved, decision to be made, investigation to be completed, invention to be created, etc. ProductsandPerformancesculminate from the study and provide appropriate evidence of understanding Standardsfor evaluating project-based products and performances

  43. Analyzing GRASPS • To what extent would the project provide meaningful assessment data about students’ level of understanding and independent application? • Which, if any, of the GRASP elements might present challenges or problems?

  44. 2 Questions: A Practical Test of Your Ideas • Could the performance be accomplished without in-depth understanding? • Could the specific performance be poor, but the student still understand?

  45. Analyzing the Summative Assessment • Does your assessment match the mastery expectations? • Is the key vocabulary represented within the assessment or are other terms being utilized in place of the vocabulary of the standards? • Are there different ways that the student can show knowledge and understandings or is there a dominant form of questioning (true/false, matching, etc.)

  46. Rubrics and Scoring Guides Students improve their achievement on performance tasks when they have a clear understanding of how they will be evaluated. The more they apply the criteria articulated in rubrics and scoring guides, the more likely they are to internalize them and apply them independently.

  47. On the rubric, remember to base the left-hand column on concepts, not directions for the unit assessment or parts of the assessments. • It is possible to differentiate the assessment without differentiating the rubric. This will help teachers stay aligned to grade-level or course expectations.

  48. Resources • http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php • http://landmark-project.com/rubricbuilder/index.php

  49. Thinking Slide • To assess students’ ability to transfer what they have learned to new tasks, the assessment must _______________ • To prepare students for assessments involving transfer, instruction should give them opportunities to _________________