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  1. Advanced English Speech on Hitler’s Invasion of the U.S.S.R.

  2. World War II: (1939 -1945) The conflict resulted from the rise of totalitarianism, fascism in Germany, Japan and Italy (the Axis vs. the Allied) Important Events July 7, 1937 Japan invaded Central China. Sep. 1938 Munich Pact, which sacrificed much of Czechoslovakia to Germany Background Information

  3. Aug. 1939 Russia-Germany non-aggression pact Sept. 1, 1939 German invasion of Poland Sept. 3, 1939 France and Britain declared war on Germany, officially beginning World War II June 22, 1940 France surrendered. Background Information

  4. Aug-Oct. 1940 The Battle of Britain (2,300 to 900) Jun 22. 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union. Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbour Background Information

  5. Sept. 1943 the Allies conquered Sicily and South Italy. Soon Italy surrendered. May 7, 1945 Germany surrendered unconditionally. Aug. 14, 1945 Japan announced its surrender. Background Information

  6. CHURCHILL Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (Nov. 30, 1874 - Jan. 24, 1965) 1888, Churchill went to Harrow and then to the Royal Military College at Sandhurst 1900, He entered the House of Commons. 1903, He praised the Liberals for Free Trade. 1904, He joined the Liberals 1924, He went back to the Conservative. 1929-1939, He was out of office. Background Information

  7. May 1940 - May 1945 first tenure as P.M. Oct 1951 - Jan 1955 second tenure as P.M. 1953, He was created Knight of the Garter by the Queen. 1953, the Nobel Prize in Literature. 1955, He resigned office and ended his public career. Jan. 24, 1965, A state funeral His works: The World Crisis (6 vols), The Second World War (6 vols), History of the English Speaking Peoples (4 vols). Background Information

  8. Narration + Argument Introduction (Forespeech) + Speech Proper Masterpiece of oration Highly persuasive and convincing Eloquent: forceful expressions, well-developed structure, words with abstract meaning Emotional: language to arouse sympathy, hatred and passion To win support and help to encourage Style

  9. Parallel structure / Parallelism We shall fight him by land, we shall fight him by sea, we shall fight him in the air… I see the Russian soldiers standing… I see them guarding… I see the ten thousand villages… Rhetorical Devices

  10. Repetition We will never parley, we will never negotiate.. Inversion From this nothing will turn us—nothing. …but this I will say… Rhetorical Question …but can you doubt what our policy will be? Rhetorical Devices

  11. Periodic Sentence (圆周句) Long and frequently involved sentence in which the main idea is reserved to the end of the sentence. Thus the meaning of the sentence is not completed until the final word-usually with an emphatic climax. E.g. It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a fortune must be in want of a wife. Rhetorical Devices

  12. Alliteration …any Russian fighting for his hearth and home Rhetorical Devices

  13. Part I. Churchill's preparation for the speech (p.77-78) a piece of narration which provides some background information of the speech Part II. The original text of the speech (p.79-82) the speech proper which is an argument or persuasion Structure of the Text

  14. Read the speech proper very quickly, try to figure out the main idea of each paragraph, and use some phrases or short sentences to summarize. 1. Comparison between Nazi and Communism 2. Spectacles unfolding before Churchill's eyes 3. Policy Churchill declared he would pursue 4. Nature of war 5. Hitler's real intention in invasion of the U.S.S.R. 6. Churchill's call on united strength Fast Reading and Summary

  15. Section 1: The Nazi regime… horrors upon mankind… (para. 1-2) Scenarios on both sides of the border. To arouse emotion and sympathy. Section 2: I have to declare the…in determination and in resources. (para. 3-4) Declaration and decision. What should we do. Section 3: This is no time…life and power remain. (para. 5-6) Further persuasion, to convince the audience of the justification of the decision. Why and how should we follow. Structural Analysis

  16. Cause sb to feel surprise She’s over 80? You surprise me! She was surprised by the boy’s intelligence. Attack, discover sb suddenly and unexpectedly We returned early and surprised the burglars searching through the cupboards. Surprise the enemy Surprise sb into sth / doing sth: cause sb to do sth through sudden unexpected action By firing a few shots we can surprise them into revealing their positions. Surprise (verb)

  17. Verb To find a satisfactory way of dealing with a problem. Negotiations to resolve the dispute. To make a definite decision to do sth. After the divorce she resolved never to marry again. Noun Strong determination to succeed in doing sth. His encouragement and support strengthened our resolve. Resolve

  18. Three questions to answer Question A What happened? (para. 1-2) Question B What should we do? (para. 3-4) Question C Why & How should we follow? (para. 5-6) Step One: make a minor speech to your partner Step Two: write a summary of the speech together Speech Retelling and Summary

  19. A productive rule of word-formation is by affixes. Prefixes do not alter the word-class of the base. Suffixes frequently alter the word-class. Negative prefixes un- (not, the opposite of): unfair, unwise non- (not): nonsmoker, nonessential, nonfiction dis- (not): disloyal, disobey, dislike, disorder Attitude prefixes co- (with, joint): cooperate, coexist, coauthor counter- (against): counterattack, counter-revolution anti- (against): anti-war, anti-missile, anti-social pro- (for): pro-American, pro-Communist Word-formation: Affixation

  20. anti- as “opposed to, against, hostile to” antiapartheid, anti-war literature, anti-colonial, anti-fascist, antislavery, anti-Japanese,antipathy anti- as “preventing, curing, reducing” antiseptic, antacid, antibody, antitoxin, antifriction, anti-pollution anti- as “operating against, resisting” antitank, antigas, antitrust, antimagnetic, antidote, antisubmarine, antipersecution anti- as “opposite, reverse” anticlimax, antinovel, antimatter, antiphrasis ant- as a variant of anti- (Antarctic, antonym) Anti-

  21. Figures of speech are forms of expression that depart from normal word of sentence order or from the common literal meanings of words, for the purpose of achieving a special effect. In everyday speech and writing, they are used to give tone or atmosphere to discourse, to provide vivid examples, to stimulate thought by startling readers, to give life to inanimate objects. Figures of resemblance or relationship. These are the most important, interesting & frequent devices. e.g. simile, metaphor, personification, metonymy Figures of emphasis or understatement. The chief function of these is to draw attention to an idea. e.g. rhetorical question, irony, climax, anticlimax, periodic sentence, repetition, inversion, parallelism Figures of sound. e.g. alliteration, onomatopoeia Figures of Speech

  22. 我只有一个目标:摧毁希特勒。这样一来,我对各种事物的态度就容易决定得多。如果希特勒入侵地狱,我至少要在下院替魔鬼说几句好话。我只有一个目标:摧毁希特勒。这样一来,我对各种事物的态度就容易决定得多。如果希特勒入侵地狱,我至少要在下院替魔鬼说几句好话。 如果希特勒认为他对苏俄的进攻会使民主阵营各国不那么专心一致要消灭希特勒,或放松这方面的努力,那他就大错而特错,并将为此付出代价。 他所以要摧毁俄国是因为他希望如果得手,他就可以从东线把其陆、空军主力抽回来,投入对英伦三岛的进攻(猛攻)。他清楚地知道如果他不能征服英国,他将因其罪行而受到惩罚。 他希望他能在比过去更大的规模上,再次重复他一直得心应手地使用的策略:将敌人各个击破。一旦这一策略获得成功,他就可以上演最后的一幕,(也就是)将西半球置于其意志和制度的统治之下。不征服西半球,他的全部侵略成果就保不住。 Translation (E-C):p.85

  23. This is true of the rural area as well as of the urban area. He was counting on their support. I don’t remember his exact words, but I’m sure he did say something to that effect. Churchill said, “tell Stalin that Britain has but one desire – to crush Hitler.” Only 9% of the population remains illiterate. This leaves them no choice but to rely on his efforts. The guests were overwhelmed by the warm reception. They overwhelmed the enemy by a surprise attack. Their difficulty is our difficulty just as we view their victory as our own victory. It was clear that German fascists intended to subjugate the people in that region. Translation (C-E):p.88

  24. Advanced English (一) 操 作 方 法 Thank you