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AKS 38 & 42a: The Renaissance, Reformation, & Scientific Revolution

AKS 38 & 42a: The Renaissance, Reformation, & Scientific Revolution

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AKS 38 & 42a: The Renaissance, Reformation, & Scientific Revolution

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  1. AKS 38 & 42a:The Renaissance, Reformation, & Scientific Revolution Chapter 17 – Pages 471-501 Chapter 22.1 – Pages 623-628

  2. 38a – explain the social, economic, and political changes that contributed to the rise of Florence and the ideas of Machiavelli

  3. The Renaissance • Means “rebirth” • Specifically a revival in art & literature • Began in the northern Italian city-states in the 1300s, lasted until around the 1600s

  4. Why did the Renaissance start in Italy? • Thriving Cities • Trade led to growth of city-states, making them very rich & powerful • Exs: Florence, Pisa, Venice, Genoa, Milan • Controlled trade on the Mediterranean Sea • Economic Changes • When the plague struck, it left fewer laborers • Survivors demanded higher wages • Expanded the middle class, which began to pursue other interests, like art, because there were few opportunities to expand business

  5. Why did the Renaissance start in Italy? 2. Classical heritage of Greece & Rome • Artists & scholars of Italy drew inspiration from the ruins of Rome that surrounded them • Western scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts that had been preserved in monasteries • Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts when the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453

  6. Why did the Renaissance start in Italy? 3. Wealthy Merchant Class • Merchants dominated political life • Did not inherit wealth, earned it • Believed this gave them the right to be powerful • This belief in individual achievement became important during the Renaissance, leading to new art forms, biographies, and portraits

  7. Why did the Renaissance start in Italy? 3. Wealthy Merchant Class • Why Florence? • Was mostly urban while the rest of Europe was rural • Because Florence was small, many of its citizens could be involved in politics • The Medici Family • Banking family that ruled Florence’s gov’t • Used wealth to be generous patrons of the arts

  8. Niccolò Machiavelli • Wrote The Prince(1513) • Writings demonstrated the value of humanism (more to come on this later) • A guidebook for rulers • Recommended realistic actions a ruler could take to stay in power • Machiavelli wrote that it a ruler should be kind and generous if able, but it is better to “be feared than loved” • A ruler should use any means necessary to achieve goals • The “end justifies the means”

  9. From this arises the question whether it is better to be loved more than feared, or feared more than loved. The reply is, that one ought to be both feared and loved, but as it is difficult for the two to go together, it is much safer to be feared than loved, if one of the two has to be wanting. For it may be said of men in general that they are ungrateful, voluble [changeable], dissemblers [liars], anxious to avoid danger, and covetous of gain; as long as you benefit them, they are entirely yours; they offer you their blood, their goods, their life, and their children, as I have before said, when the necessity is remote; but when it approaches, they revolt. And the prince who has relied solely on their words, without making preparations, is ruined. - Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince

  10. Ideas About Life Change • People remained devoutly Catholic • The spirit of society, however, was secular (worldly) • Church leaders and the wealthy believed they could enjoy life and liberty without offending God • This is humanism (again, more on this later)

  11. 38b – identify artistic and scientific achievements of the “Renaissance Man,” Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo • WARM-UP:

  12. Artists & Sculptors Perspective • Influenced by Greeks & Romans • Emphasis on individual caused: • Portraits of prominent citizens, showing what was distinctive about each • Glorification of the human body in natural postures • Perspective to enhance realism • Drawing objects smaller if they are far away (3D) • Architecture • No more Gothic • Returned to columns and domes

  13. “The Renaissance Man” • Well educated in the Classics • Knowledgeable in many subject areas • Charming, witty, smart • Could dance, write poetry, play music • Should be physically fit

  14. The Renaissance Woman • Should study the Classics • Could write, dance, paint, and make music well • Should NOT seek fame or political power • Renaissance women were far better educated but had fewer rights than Medieval women

  15. Leonardo da Vinci • Considered to be a true “Renaissance Man” • Studied the human body & flight • Was an inventor, sculptor, painter, & scientist

  16. Leonardo, the Artist

  17. From his Notebooks of over5000 pages

  18. His “Last Supper” shows Jesus’ last meeting with the 12 apostles before the crucifixionThe facial expressions, detail, and emotion had made it a masterpiece

  19. The Last Supper – da Vinci, & Geometry

  20. The Last Supper and Perspective vertical horizontal

  21. The Da Vinci “Code”St. John or Mary Magdalene?

  22. Convent of Santa Maria delle GrazieMilan, Italy

  23. da Vinci’s Mona Lisais great for its emotion and depth

  24. Mona Lisa has no visible facial hair at all - including eyebrows and eyelashes

  25. A Picasso Mona

  26. On August 12, 1911, a Louvre employee stole it by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet and walking out with it hidden under his coat after the museum had closed • After keeping the painting in his apartment for two years, the man grew impatient and was caught when he attempted to sell it to an art dealer; it was exhibited all over Italy and returned to the Louvre in 1913

  27. In 1956, the lower part of the painting was severely damaged when someone doused it with acid • On December 30 of that same year, another person damaged the painting by throwing a rock at it • The result was a speck of pigment near Mona Lisa's left elbow • The painting is now covered with bulletproof security glass

  28. Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology):Pages from his Notebook

  29. Leonardo, the Engineer:

  30. Leonardo sketched several designs for flying machines including this one with a rotating screw • He intended to power it with a wound-up spring

  31. Leonardo’s many military inventions included this design for an armored tank • Four soldiers sitting inside could turn cranks to move the wheels on this “tank”

  32. da Vinci also invented a gigantic crossbow • It's difficult to know whether it would have worked, or whether it would have been superior to cannons of the same period

  33. Vitruvian Man • The length of a man's outspread arms is equal to his height • The maximum width of the shoulders is a quarter of a man's height • The distance from the elbow to the tip of the hand is one-fifth of a man's height

  34. Michelangelo • Michelangelo was a great painter & sculptor; his “Pieta” & “David” sculptures are perceived as masterpieces • His greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, which shows biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beauty

  35. Michelangelo’s “Pieta” depicts the Virgin Mary cradling the limp body of the crucified Jesus

  36. Michelangelo’s statue of “David” expresses the Renaissance belief in human dignity and greatness

  37. The Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel • Michelangelo painted more than 300 massive human figures onto the 5,800 square-foot ceiling while laying on his back • The ceiling contains illustrations from the creation of Adam to the story of Noah

  38. The Creation of the Heavens

  39. The Sistine Chapel Details Creation of Man

  40. Michelangelo returned to the chapel to begin painting the altarpiece “The Last Judgment” • This painting features Christ judging souls as the rise and fall from each side of the painting

  41. Bartholomew's flayed skin

  42. Raphael • Raphael “perfected” Renaissance painting • He became the favorite painter of the Pope because of his amazing detailed paintings showing Greeks & Romans along with Renaissance people • “School of Athens” is his greatest work

  43. All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included in this painting  all of the great personalities of the classical period • A great variety of poses • Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel

  44. Plato and Aristotle Socrates Raphael

  45. Alexander the Great Michelangelo