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Aerospace Education

Aerospace Education. Module 4 Rockets. Contents. Chapter 1 – History of Rockets Chapter 2 – Rocket Principles Chapter 3 – Rocket Systems and Controls Quiz Credits. Chapter 1. “History of Rockets”. Greek Contribution.

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Aerospace Education

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  1. Aerospace Education Module 4 Rockets

  2. Contents • Chapter 1 – History of Rockets • Chapter 2 – Rocket Principles • Chapter 3 – Rocket Systems and Controls • Quiz • Credits

  3. Chapter 1 “History of Rockets”

  4. Greek Contribution Rocketry began around 400 BCE when Archytas built a flying wooden pigeon, suspended on a wire and propelled by steam. 300 years later, Hero developed the first rocket engine. The “Hero Engine” was propelled by steam. The Hero engine consisted of a sphere on top of a pot of water. When the water was heated and turned into steam, the steam would travel through pipes into the sphere. Two L-Shaped tubes on either side of the sphere released the steam, creating thrust. Contents

  5. Greek Contribution

  6. Chinese Contribution By the first century, the Chinese had developed an early form of gunpowder and had began using it in fireworks for religious and festive celebrations. They then began experimenting with it for warfare. When the Chinese went to war with the Mongols in 1232, the Chinese used these early rockets as arrows of flying fire. The stick attached to the rocket acted as a crude guidance system. It was from this point that the use of rockets began to spread. Contents

  7. Chinese Contribution

  8. Early European Contribution Rockets continued to develop through the 13th and 15th centuries. Roger Bacon developed better forms of gunpowder in England while Jean Froissart improved rocket accuracy by launching them from a tube. Towards the end of the 17th century, Sir Isaac Newton developed his laws of motion. As time went on, German and Russian rocket experimenters began experimenting with very powerful rockets, some of which were so powerful they bored holes in the ground before lift-off. Contents

  9. British Contribution At the end of the 18th century, Col. William Congreve, a British artillery expert set out to design rockets for military purposes. His rockets reached a range of 3,000 yds. and were very successful on the battlefield due to the sheer numbers that could be fired. Congreve’s rockets were the type of rockets which inspired Francis Scott Key’s “The Star Spangled Banner” during the battle of Fort McHenry during the war of 1812. Contents

  10. British Contribution

  11. British Contribution After Congreve’s contributions, rocket accuracy had still not really improved any. Englishman William Hale developed a technique called spin stabilization. This technique uses escaping rocket exhaust which strike small vanes on the bottom of the rocket to create a spin while in flight, much like a bullet. Many rockets still use this technique today for stabilization. Contents

  12. American Contribution During the early 20th century, American physics professor Dr. Robert H. Goddard conducted many practical experiments with rockets which led to major breakthroughs in rocket development. Goddard began with solid fuel rockets and then determined that liquid fuel rockets better propel a rocket. Goddard achieved the first flight of a liquid propelled rocket in 1926, fueled with gasoline and oxygen. Goddard eventually developed his rockets further with a gyroscope guidance system, payload compartment, and parachute recovery system. He also concluded that multistage rockets were necessary to achieve higher altitudes. Contents

  13. American Contribution

  14. American Contribution After WWII, the United States Army contracted many scientists from around the world to work in the US rocket program in order to prevent the Soviet Union from contracting them. Wernher Von Braun became the head of the new US rocket program, and formerly headed the Nazi V-2 rocket program. Contents

  15. The Space Race Both the US and Soviet Union recognized the strategic value of rocketry after WWII and began a wide variety of experimental programs. The US began a program of high altitude sounding rockets and later developed several medium- and long-range ICBMs such as the Redstone, Atlas, and Titan missiles. These missiles would later launch many satellites and astronauts into orbit and would become the workhorses of the space program. Contents

  16. The Space Race

  17. The Space Race On October 4th, 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite into orbit, Sputnik I. This achievement unofficially officially began the space race between the United States and Soviet Union. The United States launched it’s own artificial satellite on January 31st, 1958, Explorer I. In October of 1958, the US formally established NASA, with the goal of peaceful exploration of space for the benefit of all of humanity. Contents

  18. The Space Race Sputnik I Explorer I

  19. The Space Race In April of 1961, the Soviet Union achieved the launching of the first man to orbit Earth, Yuri Gagarin. Less than a month later, the US launched Alan Shepherd aboard the Mercury capsule, Freedom 7, to become the first American in space. 20 days after the launch of Alan Shepherd into space, although he wasn’t even able to orbit, President John F. Kennedy established the goal of putting a man on the Moon before the end of the decade. In February of 1962, John Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth aboard Friendship 7, another Mercury capsule. Contents

  20. The Space Race Freedom 7 Friendship 7

  21. The Space Race After the Mercury missions were concluded and NASA’s extensive unmanned program in support of the lunar landing were carried out, the Gemini missions began. The Gemini missions were designed to carry two crew members, and were launched by the largest available vehicle, the Titan II. Gemini was aimed at increasing our experience in space in preparation for the US lunar landing. Gemini also carried out the first rendezvous and docking in space. Contents

  22. The Space Race

  23. The Space Race After the Gemini missions concluded, Apollo began. If the US was to send men to the Moon and return them safely, NASA was going to need far larger launch vehicles than they currently had available. This prompted the development of the Saturn launch vehicles. First came the Saturn I and Saturn IB rockets, which were large, two-stage liquid rockets which were assembled using other rockets. In October of 1968 NASA launched the first manned Apollo mission on a Saturn IB rocket, Apollo 7. Apollo 7 launched men into orbit around the Moon, but did not land. Finally, on July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 landed on the moon and Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Moon. Contents

  24. The Space Race

  25. The Space Race Following the Apollo project, NASA undertook the Skylab project, the US’ first space station. Skylab was launched in May of 1973 aboard a Saturn IB launch vehicle and had 3 separate missions aboard it between 1973 and 1974. The last mission was the longest, lasting 84 days.

  26. The Space Race After Skylab, the United States began to focus on a reusable launch system, the space shuttle. The shuttle uses 2 solid-fuel rocket boosters and has three main engines on the orbiter to launch. The reusable boosters release after about 2 minutes of flight. Contents

  27. Chapter 2 “Rocket Principles”

  28. Principles of Rocketry By the most basic definition, a rocket is a chamber with pressurized gas inside it. There is a small opening letting the gas out, causing thrust which propels the rocket. Contents

  29. Newton’s Laws of Motion Sir Isaac Newton, as learned in previous modules, stated three laws that govern motion within our universe. It is the usage of these laws that enable engineers to design more effective rockets today. Contents

  30. Newton’s First Law of Motion Newton’s first law of motion basically states that if something isn’t moving, it will continue to not move unless something moves it, or, if something is moving, it will continue moving at that speed forever unless something causes it to change speeds or stop moving. Contents

  31. Newton’s Second Law of Motion Newton’s second law basically states that something that is sped up, speeds up at a rate which is proportional to the mass of the object and the amount of force acting upon it. The mathematic equation looks like this: F = MA. This means that the force necessary to cause a certain amount of acceleration is equal to the mass of the object, multiplied by the acceleration you want. Contents

  32. Newton’s Third Law of Motion Newton’s third law of motion states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that if a rocket’s engine fires, the rocket will be pushed upwards because the engine is creating downward thrust. Contents

  33. Chapter 3 “Rocket Systems and Controls”

  34. Rocket Systems Modern rockets are comprised of 4 major systems: the airframe, the guidance system, the control system, and the propulsion system.

  35. The Airframe The airframe is the outer shell of the rocket. Ideally, they are lightweight and structurally sound. Airframes must endure a tremendous amount of stress so they must be made of light, but very strong materials, such as titanium and aluminum. Contents

  36. The Guidance System Guidance systems can be called the “brain” of the rocket as it is responsible for getting the rocket to it’s destination. When compared to other rocket components, guidance systems are very small. Guidance systems are usually computers which ensure the rocket stays on the right trajectory to reach it’s target. Contents

  37. The Control System The control systems works with the guidance systems to ensure the rocket stays on the correct trajectory, the control system however, does the actual work of changing the direction the rocket is flying. There are 4 main types of control systems. In essence, the control system is what steers the rocket while it flies. Contents

  38. The Propulsion System The propulsion system is the largest component, excluding the airframe, to most rockets. The propulsion system is what creates the thrust necessary to push a rocket through the air. There are two types of propulsion systems, solid fuel, and liquid fuel. Rockets today are mostly liquid fueled rockets, although much more complex than solid fuel rockets. Contents

  39. Quiz

  40. Question 1 Who’s laws laid down the scientific foundation for modern rocketry? A) John Glenn B) Roger Bacon C) Sir Isaac Newton D) Francis Scott Key

  41. Correct! The scientist who laid down the laws of motion which form the foundation of modern rocketry was Sir Isaac Newton Next Question

  42. Incorrect The scientist who laid down the laws of motion that form the foundation for modern rocketry was Sir Isaac Newton. His Laws of Motion govern the movement of rockets in our universe Next Question

  43. Question 2 Who was the first American to walk on the surface of the Moon? A) Chuck Yeager B) Colonel Congreve C)Wernher Von Braun D) Neil Armstrong

  44. Correct! The first American, and human being, to walk on the surface of the Moon was Neil Armstrong. Next Question

  45. Incorrect The first American to walk upon the surface of the Moon was Neil Armstrong. Next Question

  46. Question 3 Who is known as the father of modern rocketry? A) Dr. Robert Goddard B) Francis Scott Key C)Apollo I D) Sir Isaac Newton

  47. Correct! Dr. Robert Goddard is known as the father of modern rocketry due to his pioneering research in rocketry, as well as his invention of liquid propelled rockets. Next Question

  48. Incorrect Dr. Robert Goddard is known as the father of modern rocketry due to his pioneering work in the field of rocketry, as well as his invention of the liquid propelled rocket. Next Question

  49. Question 4 A body at rest remaining at rest is part of Newton’s __ Law of Motion. A) 3rd B) 2nd C) 1st D) 6th

  50. Correct! A body at rest remaining at rest is part of Newton’s First Law of Motion Next Question

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