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Growth and Development of Infants

Growth and Development of Infants

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Growth and Development of Infants

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  1. Growth and Development of Infants

  2. Baby Polar Bear Adult Polar Bear Baby Pictures

  3. Piglet Adult Pig Baby Pictures

  4. Patterns of Physical Development • Head to toe • Lift head to see object • Muscle control: pick up • Walk towards • Near to far: trunk outward • Wave arms • Grab with palm of hand • Pick up with thumb and fingers • Simple to complex • Eating with fingers • Spoon and fork

  5. Weight • Lose some after birth • 1-2 lbs/month 1st 6 months • 1 pound in 2nd 6 months • Birth weight: • Doubled by 6 month • Tripled by 1 yr • 20-22 lbs: avg wt of 1 yr old • Heredity, feeding habits, and physical activity

  6. Height • Avg newborn =20 inches • Avg 1 year =30 inches • Heredity: influences height more than weight

  7. Proportion • Large: head and abdomen • Short/small: arms and legs • Head grows rapidly b/c brain development • Soft spots allow head to grow and close

  8. Soft Spots

  9. 1st Year Physical Developments

  10. Sight • Focus on objects 7-10 inches away • 1 month: focus up to 3 feet away • 3 ½ months: normal • Prefer patterns, high contrast, faces • Prefer color red

  11. Depth Perception • 2nd month: recognize that object is three-dimensional, not flat

  12. Hand-Eye Coordination • Develop hand-eye coordination: • Move hands and fingers in relation to what is seen • 3-4 months: reach for what they see • Essential for: • Eating • Catching a ball • Coloring • Tying shoes

  13. Activity • Make a list of toys and activities that help develop hand-eye coordination for infants. • Provide illustrations for each toy or activity. • 3-5 colored illustrations

  14. The Developing Brain

  15. Structure of the Brain • The brain receives and interprets messages from the body, so it is key for intellectual development • The brain is divided into different sections that control specific functions of the body

  16. Parts of the Brain • Cerebrum- receives information from senses, directs motor activities • Speech, memory, and problem solving • Occur in outer layer called cortex • Thalamus- connect spinal cord and cerebrum • Expressions and emotions • Cerebellum- controls muscular coordination and balance

  17. Parts of the Brain continued • Spinal Cord- transmits info from the body to the brain; vice versa • Brain Stem- controls involuntary activities such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure • Pituitary Gland- secretes hormones that regulate growth, metabolism, and sexual development

  18. How the Brain Works • Neurons sprout arms called dendrites and axons • Reach toward other neurons, but never touch • Tiny gaps called synapses; this is where messages are sent from one neuron to another • Neurotransmitters are released by axons to attach to other dendrites • The more times the same axon and dendrite connect, the stronger the connection grows and messages are sent more quickly

  19. How the Brain Becomes Organized • The more arms neurons grow and the more links that develop between different neurons, the more paths the brain has • More paths equal more power and flexibility • Organization of brain grow’s on child’s experiences • The group of neurons becomes linked together and controls a particular task

  20. How the Brain Becomes Organized continued • Connections of neurons can be broken • Connections can be lost and others added at the same time • Developments have an impact on the appearance of the brain

  21. Speeding the Brain’s Work • Myelin makes it easier for axons to transmit signals, it speeds their work • All axons are not coated when a baby is born, only those that control basic instincts • Axons become coated as a child grows • Axons that control motor abilities, vision, and hearing receive coating first

  22. Rules to Build a Brain By • Keep it simple and natural • Rich environment- lots of loving interaction and talking • Match experiences to the child’s mental capacities • Learn by physical experiences • Practice makes perfect • Repetition

  23. Rules to Build a Brain By continued • Make sure the child is actively involved • Learn by doing • Provide variety, but avoid overloading • Give range of experiences, avoid being overwhelmed • Avoid pushing the child • Learn better if emotionally involved

  24. Is the Brain Only Organized Once? • 1st year of life is not the only time that the brain can become organized • Children who have suffered brain damage can learn to speak • Older people who have a stroke- where neurons die in one part of the brain- can relearn skills by using another part of the brain

  25. Brainstorming Activity • Name some activities that promote the growth of connections in the brain of infants. • Next, draw a picture of the brain using page 261. Label each part of the brain and their function.

  26. Handling and Feeding Infants

  27. Gentle Handling of an Infant • Never shake a baby • Shaken baby syndrome- when someone severely shakes the baby usually to make them stop crying • Damages the brain • Learning problems • Mental retardation • Blindness • Deafness • death

  28. Gentle Handling of an Infant continued • Safe ways to handle a stressful situation with crying: • Put baby down in a safe place and calm down • Ask a friend or relative to care for the baby • Take deep breaths • Talk out your problems

  29. How to Handle a Newborn Safely • Refer to diagram on page 269 of “The Developing Child”

  30. Feeding Methods

  31. Feeding a Baby • First few weeks, 6-8 times a day • Breastfed babies tend to eat more often • 2nd or 3rd month, once every 3-4 hours • When a baby reaches 12 pounds, he will sleep through the night because the stomach can hold more food

  32. Feeding Methods • Breast milk or formula during the 1st year • No cow’s milk until 1 year

  33. How to Feed with a Bottle • Hold baby is semi-upright position • Support neck and head with the head held above the stomach • Hold the bottle at an angle • Prevents swallowing air • Never prop a bottle • Choking hazard, tooth decay, digestive problems

  34. Bottle Warming • Formula does not have to be served warm • Never heat a bottle in the microwave • Can cause hot spots • Heat bottle in a pan of water on the stove • Run under hot water • Use a bottle warmer • Check the temperature by shaking a few drops on your wrist

  35. Sanitation • Throw left over formula in the bottle away • Wash and sterilize all bottles and bottle parts after each use • Boiling water • Dishwasher • Both eliminate bacteria contamination

  36. Burping a Baby • Burping helps expel air the baby swallowed • You should burp a baby once during feeding and once after

  37. Types of Formula • Powder, concentrate, ready to feed (RTF)

  38. Powder • Mix with water • 1 scoop per 2 oz water • Make on needed basis

  39. Concentrate • Dilute with water • 1 can formula with 1 can water • Use within 24 hours

  40. RTF • No mixing required • More expensive • Use within 24 hours

  41. How much formula? • 55 calories/pound each day • Standard formula: 20 calories per ounce • Example: How many ounces does a 12 pound baby need each day?

  42. Breastfeeding Basicshttp://video.about.com/breastfeeding/Breastfeeding.htm

  43. Why Breastfeed? • Healthy • Free • Bonding • Natural • Builds immune system • Mom burns more calories and loses weight quicker

  44. How long should you breastfeed? • Recommend 1st 6 months • First milk- colostrum • High in fat, protein, antibodies • 20 minutes on each breast • Feed on demand • 5-6 wet diapers • 3-4 dirty diapers • http://video.about.com/breastfeeding/Breast-Feeding-Positions.htm

  45. Nutrition • Avoid gassy foods: • Broccoli, green leafy vegetables, spicy foods • Avoid alcohol • “pump and dump” • Mom’s diet becomes baby’s diet

  46. Video Clips and Pictures • http://www.ameda.com/breastpumping/videos/popup_video.aspx?id=LatchOnEnglish • http://www.breastfeeding.com/helpme/helpme_video_4_bf_positions.html • http://www.breastfeeding.com/helpme/helpme_videos/18_how_baby_sounds_bfing.html • http://similac.com/feeding-nutrition/diaper-decoder

  47. Breastfeeding vs Breast Pumphttp://video.about.com/breastfeeding/Breast-Feeding-Positions.htm • Pumping is an alternative to breast feeding • Use manual or electric pump • Hand express • Some babies cannot latch on • Mother feels uncomfortable

  48. Storage • Room temp 6-10 hrs • Refrigerator 5-7 days • Freezer 3-6 months • http://video.about.com/breastfeeding/Storing-Breast-Milk.htm

  49. Sanitation • Clean breasts with warm water and dry towel after feeding • Soap will remove natural oils • Cause drying or cracking • Can use a breast cream

  50. How to stop breastfeeding • Slowly wean the baby • Milk will eventually dry up • Could experience engorgement • Hand express to relieve discomfort