Ch. 5 & 6- Flowers & Fruits - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ch. 5 & 6- Flowers & Fruits

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  1. Ch. 5 & 6- Flowers & Fruits

  2. Angiosperms (flowering plants) • Unique among plants because they have sexual reproductive structures contained in a flower • derived from modified leaves • seeds form inside fleshy fruit • pollinated by insects or other animals Fruit as an adaptation for seed dispersal: Red berries and dandelion

  3. Flower arrangements • Perfect: both stamens & carpels • Imperfect: missing either stamens or carpels • Monoecious: both male & female flowers on same plant • Dioecious: male & female flowers on separate plants female male Embryo sac  fruit seed  The structure of a flower

  4. lily

  5. Fig. 42.9

  6. Fig. 42.10

  7. Fig. 42.17

  8. monoecious species, male (left) and female (right) begonia flowers

  9. Fig. 42.16

  10. Pollination • place pollen onto stigma of a carpel • pollination agents • grasses, many trees: wind • many angiosperms: animals, including insects • self-pollination A relationship between an angiosperm and its pollinator: Hummingbird and flower (left); bee and Scotch broom (right)

  11. How do flowers attract the pollinator of choice? • Insect: bright, showy petals with fragrant aromas, rich in nectar • E.g.: moths=white, night; flies=“smelly” • Hummingbird: bright, often red, no aroma • Wind: small and inconspicuous with copious production of dry, lightweight pollen

  12. Fig. 42.1

  13. Fig. 42.11

  14. Fig. 42.13

  15. Fig. 42.5

  16. Fig. 42.6

  17. Fig. 42.12

  18. Fig. 42.14

  19. Fig. 42.15

  20. Fig. 42.19

  21. Fig. 42.20

  22. Fruits • What is a fruit? • What are the purpose of fruit? • How is a fruit formed?

  23. Fruit = “mature ovary”purpose: protects seeds, dispersal aid Relationship between a pea flower and a fruit (pea pod)

  24. Fruit or vegetable? • botanical: • Ripened ovary • Legal • Something that tastes sweet and is eaten as dessert

  25. Types of Fruits • Dry fruits: Tough or papery pericarp • Fleshy fruits: Soft and juicy pericarp • Drupe • Berry • Aggregate • Multiple • Accessory

  26. Development of fruit from flower • drupe • berry • simple = 1 ovary of 1 flower • e.g., cherry, soybean pod • compound = multiple ovaries • aggregate = of one flower • e.g., raspberry, blackberry • multiple = of many flowers (inflorescence) • e.g., pineapple • accessory = parts other than ovary • e.g., strawberry, apple, melon, tomato

  27. Fig. 40.11a

  28. Fig. 40.11b

  29. Fig. 40.11c

  30. Fig. 40.11d

  31. Fig. 40.12

  32. Fig. 40.13

  33. Fig. 40.14

  34. Seeds • Contain embryonic plant plus nutritive tissue & tough outer coat • Starting point for next generation

  35. Fig. 40.2a

  36. Fig. 40.2b

  37. Cotyledons (embryonic leaves) • Single cotyledon = monocot • Two large cotyledons = dicot • Cotyledons can be “fleshy” or “leafy” • Cotyledons can be kept belowground or elevated above ground

  38. Fig. 40.7

  39. Seed Germination • imbibition: absorption of water • mobilization of food reserves • enzyme activity digests endosperm (converts starch to sugar)

  40. Seed Germination • emergence of radicle • detects gravity & grows downward • epicotyl emerges through soil surface • light cues upward & straighter growth

  41. Fig. 40.1 With light: Green Shorter Open cotyledons Straight stem Without light: Yellow Elongated Closed cotyledons Hooked stem

  42. Fig. 40.10