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Classification & Identification of English Speech Sounds

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Classification & Identification of English Speech Sounds

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  1. Classification & Identification of English Speech Sounds Phonetics

  2. Before proceeding further … • Please download and install IPA font files to see the phonetic symbols used in the slides. • Click here or visit SIL webpage. SONUS Reviving

  3. Types of speech sounds • Segmentals • Consonants • Vowels • Semivowels • Suprasegmentals • Stress • Pitch • Intonation • Rhythm SONUS Reviving

  4. English speech sounds:Segmentals • Consonants • Sounds made by a closure or narrowing in the vocal tract so that the airflow is either completely blocked or so restricted that audible friction is produced. • Eg) p, t, k, m, n, l • Vowels • Sounds articulated without a complete closure in the mouth or a degree of narrowing which would produce audible friction • The air escapes evenly over the centre of the tongue. • Eg) a, e, I, o, u, aI/ay, aU/aw • Semi-vowels (glides) • Sounds functioning as a consonant but lacking the phonetic characteristics normally associated with consonants • Their quality is phonetically that of vowel. • Eg) j/y, w SONUS Reviving

  5. English Consonants Sounds produced with major obstruction to airflow in the vocal tract

  6. English consonants • Criteria for distinction • Primary articulation • Voicing • Whether the vocal cords are vibrating during the production of a particular consonant • Places of articulation • The specific positions of constriction in the vocal tract where individual sounds are produced • Manners of articulation • The way in which the airstream is modified as it passes through the vocal tract • Secondary articulation • Aspiration • Unreleasing • … SONUS Reviving

  7. Voicing • Related to phonation • Voiced • Vocal cords vibrating • Examples • Vowels, sonorants [a, e, m, r …] • Voiceless • Glottis kept open • Examples • Voiceless obstruents [p, t, k, s …] • Cognates • Phonemes that differ only in voicing • example) /p/&/b/, /s/&/z/ SONUS Reviving

  8. bilabial labiodental interdental (apico)dental alveolar alveopalatal (postalveolar, palato-alveolar) palatal (dorso)velar uvular pharyngeal glottal Places of articulation SONUS Reviving

  9. Obstruents stop (plosive) (non-continuant) complete closure abrupt release fricative (continuant) partial obstruction turbulence airflow affricate (non-continuant) complete closure delayed release Sonorants nasal liquid lateral retroflex flap(tap) trill (eg. French uvular trill [R]) glide Manners of articulation SONUS Reviving

  10. English consonant chart SONUS Reviving

  11. English consonant chart SONUS revivig

  12. Other symbols • retroflex approximant • Alternative transcription of /r/ • ã voiceless (labio)velar approximant/fricative • eg. whet, anywhere in GA SONUS Reviving

  13. Describing consonant symbols • voicing-place-manner • examples • [p] voiceless bilabial stop • [z] voiced alveolar fricative • Class description • [p, t, k] voiceless stops • [p, t, k, b, d, g, ?] stops SONUS Reviving

  14. English Vowels Sounds without major obstruction to airflow in the vocal tract

  15. Difficulties in vowel analyses • Different classifications by different scholars • More variations than consonants • English accents differ most noticeably in their vowel systems. • Eg) GA vs RP • Different transcriptions • Eg) [i, I, e, E] vs [iù, i, eI, e] • Reason for difficulties • No contact or proximity of articulators in vowel production SONUS Reviving

  16. Vowel Types • Monophthong • A vowel where there is no detectable change in quality during a syllable • eg: [a, u] • Diphthong • A vowel where there is a single (perceptual) noticeable change in quality during a syllable • eg: [aj, wi] SONUS Reviving

  17. Monophthongs • Criteria for vowel classification • tongue height • tongue backness • tenseness • lip rounding • nasality • length SONUS Reviving

  18. Vowel chart: monophthongs SONUS Reviving

  19. Vowel chart: monophthongs SONUS Reviving

  20. Vowels of RP vs GA • RP • Shcwa [«]occurs only in unstressed syllables. • Elsewhere: [Î] • eg) purr, stern, heard, fir • Distinction between [A] & [] • [A]: palm, father, far • []: pot, rob, box • GA • Shcwa [«]occurs only in unstressed syllables or before [r] • No distinction between [A] & [] • [A]: palm, father, far, pot, rob, box SONUS Reviving

  21. Diphthongs • Definition • A diphthong is a phonetic sequence, consisting of a vowel and a glide, that is interpreted as a single vowel. • Types • On-glide diphthong: Glide + Vowel (not English phonemes but two separate segments) • Off-glide diphthong: Vowel + Glide SONUS Reviving

  22. GA diphthongs: GA • GA (midwestern) • [aj ej aw j ow] ( or [aI eI aU I oU] ) • GA (California) • [aj aw j] ( or [aI aU oU] ) • RP • [aj ej aw j «w ] • [I« E« U«] centering diphthongs SONUS Reviving

  23. Glide + vowel sequences in English SONUS Reviving

  24. Glide + vowel sequences in English SONUS Reviving

  25. Describing vowel symbols • Height-backness-tenseness-rounding • examples • [i] high front tense (unrounded) vowel • [Q] low front (lax) (unrounded) vowel • Class description • examples • [i, I, e, E, Q] front (unrounded) vowels • [i, u] high tense vowels SONUS Reviving

  26. Diacritics for secondary articulations Reviving SONUS

  27. Describing secondary articulation symbols • Consonants • voicing-(place 2nd)-place-(manner 2nd)-manner • examples • [p] voiceless bilabial stop • [pH] voiceless bilabial aspirated stop • [pJ py] voiceless palatalized bilabial stop • [pHJ] voiceless palatalized bilabial aspirated stop • Vowels • Height-backness-tenseness-rounding-2nd • Examples • [E)] mid front lax unrounded nasalised vowel SONUS Reviving

  28. Links • Interactive sagittal section, by Daniel Currie Hall University of Toronto SONUS Reviving