Effective Middle School Reading Dr. Pam Petty Western Kentucky UniversityDivision of LiteracyTate Page Hall, 118Bowling Green, KY 42101 270-745-2922 Pam@pampetty.com http://www.pampetty.com
Reading is … • construction of meaning from text. It is an active, cognitive, and affective process.
Every teacher is a teacher of reading.William S. Gray • Reading is essential in every content subject … • “In fact, rapid progress in these subjects depends in a large degree on the ability of pupils to read independently and intelligently. It follows that good teaching must provide for the improvement and refinement of the reading, attitudes, habits, and skills that are needed in all school activities involving reading.” • Farstrup, A. E. & Samuels, S. J. (2002). What research has to say about reading instruction. Newark, Delaware: IRA, p. 186.
Ensure Comprehension Literacy Coach Cultural Issues print Model Second LanguageLearners Manager content Understandsand Supportsthe Reading Process BackgroundKnowledge
Center on the Teacher rather than Methods and Materials • To improve reading instruction, it is necessary to prepare better teachers of reading rather than to expect a panacea in the form of materials. Bond and Dykstra in IRA Position Statement 1033 – 4/99
The National Reading Panel report concluded that … “the most effective way to teach children to read is through instruction that includes a combination of methods.”
= All students learn. Effectiveness content
All students learn. • No exceptions • No excuses Shared responsibility NO Fault Zone Disassociation
Principles of Teaching Reading • No one best way • Balance of instruction to include the whole reading process • Student-centered • Authentic • Success • Pleasure • Throughout the curriculum • Culturally Responsive
Principles of Language-Based Teaching • Language-Based teachers understand that learning is a social process. • Language-Based teachers know that the best learning occurs when it is whole, functional, and meaningful. • Language-Based teacher know that students improve their reading and writing when given abundant opportunities to use reading and writing as vehicles for learning.
Principles of Language-Based Teaching, cont’d. • Language-Based teachers understand the importance motivation plays in learning. • Language-Based teachers are continually moving toward better literacy and content teaching.
Background knowledge … • And prior knowledge are critical to the reading process.
Social Interaction … • is essential to learning. • Communities of learners. • Vygotsky
Reading is social … • Communities of learners support literacy development.
Reading and writing … • develop together. • Complimentary processes
Reading involves … • Complex thinking!
Reading is facilitated in … • Environments rich in literacy experiences, resources, and models. • Children need the opportunity to read, read, read.
Engagement in the Reading Task … • Is the KEY in successfully learning to read. • Children learn successful reading strategies in the context of REAL reading.
A variety of strategies … • Must be modeled and demonstrated • When you select ONE program, one method, or one set of materials, you just limited your options for reaching all children.
A Model of Comprehension Instruction • An explicit description of the strategy and when and how it should be used. • Teacher and/or student modeling of the strategy in ACTION. • Collaborative use of the strategy in action. • Guided practice using the strategy with gradual release of responsibility. • Independent use of the strategy.
Good readers are active readers. • They have clear goals for their reading and they constantly evaluate to meet those goals. • They look over the text and note the structure before they start reading. • They make predictions about what is to come.
They read selectively, constantly making decision about their reading – what to read carefully, what to read quickly, what not to read, what to reread, etc. • Good readers construct, revise, and question the meanings they make as they read. • Good readers try to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and concepts in the text, and they deal with inconsistencies or gaps as needed.
They draw from, compare, and integrate their prior knowledge with material in the text. • They think about the authors of the text, their style, beliefs, intentions, and do on. • Good readers read different types of texts differently • Comprehension is a consuming, continuous, and complex activity, but one that, for good readers, is both satisfying and productive.
Building a Comprehension Curriculum • Predictions • Think-Alouds • Text Structure • Visual Representation of Text • Summarization • Questioning
Effective Comprehension Routines • Reciprocal Teaching • Questioning the Author • Directed Reading-Thinking Activity • Creative Thinking • KWHL and Concept Mapping • Problem and Project-Based Learning • Inquiry-Based Instruction