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Effective School Leadership for Reading First. Sharon Walpole University of Delaware. Successful School Reform is …. Specific The program is sufficiently detailed. Powerful The program produces results. Authoritative Leadership is involved and informed.
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Effective School Leadership for Reading First Sharon Walpole University of Delaware
Successful School Reform is … • Specific The program is sufficiently detailed. • Powerful The program produces results. • Authoritative Leadership is involved and informed. • Consistent The program is uniformly implemented. • Stable The program is not changed without reason. Desimone, L. (2002). How can comprehensive school reform models be successfully implemented? Review of Educational Research, 72,433–479.
The Effective RF Principal Joseph Murphy, in Leadership for Literacy: Research-Based Practice, PreK-3 (2003, Corwin Press), summarizes key qualities possessed by principals of schools where achievement is strong.
Setting Goals The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Has a more child-centered vision Has a more adult-centered vision Sets manageable, realistic goals Favors broad goals Sees student performance as central Likes to see things run smoothly Expresses goals in measurable terms Expresses goals vaguely Uses goals for planning Refers rarely to goals Asks parents & staff to help set goals Limits goal setting input
Communicating Goals The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Periodically reviews & discusses Infrequently discusses goals Actively clarifies goals Rarely clarifies goals Has teachers who know goals Has teachers unfamiliar with goals Has teachers who see themselves Has teachers who see themselves as good instructors as good managers & colleagues
Promoting Quality Instruction The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Insists on certain teaching strategies Has less focus on methods Favors interactive teaching Is content with less interaction Assigns teachers on the basis of Assigns teachers bureaucratically improving achievement
Supervising Instruction The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Relies little on formal observations Values formal observations Values informal visits and meetings Rarely makes informal visits Often reads about instruction Seldom reads about instruction Often provides specific feedback Seldom provides specific feedback Counsels and assists poor teachers Less likely to confront poor teachers
Allocating Instructional Time The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Carefully sets time allocations Less likely to set time allocations Coordinates time allocations Less likely to have uniform schedule across teachers Schedules more instructional and Less likely to favor instructional over fewer non-instructional activities non-instructional activities Insists on time for basics Less likely to ensure their coverage Protects uninterrupted block Less likely to preserve block
Coordinating the Curriculum The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Is highly involved in curriculum Is less involved in curriculum alignment alignment Is concerned with the continuity Tends not to focus on continuity of curriculum from grade to grade of curriculum from grade to grade
Monitoring Student Progress The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Supports testing programs Views testing as a necessary evil Provides test results to teachers Is less timely in reporting results In a timely manner to teachers Discusses results with groups and Is less likely to discuss results individual teachers Encourages teachers to use test Does not emphasize the connection results to plan instruction between testing and teaching
Setting Expectations The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Holds adults accountable for student Does not hold others accountable learning outcomes Requires mastery of grade-level Is more likely to socially promote skills for promotion to next grade students
Being Visible The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Is often out of the office Spends large amounts of time in the office Makes an effort to move about Is less mobile the campus and in and out of classrooms
Providing Incentives The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal • Recognizes teachers with rewards Seldom acknowledges teachers • such as • distributing leadership • showing personal interest • making public acknowledgements • giving private praise Ensures that student rewards are Is less concerned about student frequent and they they go to a large rewards percentage of students Focuses rewards on achievement Is less likely to reward achievement
Promoting PD The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Is more likely to be directly involved Often avoids PD sessions in PD activities Follows up by ensuring that PD Is unlikely to follow up PD methods are implemented Cobbles temporary coalitions Is not adept at working with of teachers to help implement teacher groups to implement Encourages professional dialogue Is indifferent to dialogue Helps teachers attend conferences Resists conference attendance
Creating a Safe & Orderly Learning Environment The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Works with teachers to develop Is less focused on management skills classroom management skills Establishes a clear and consistent Fails to set up a clear policy disciplinary policy Enforces discipline fairly and May be inconsistent in enforcing consistently discipline Involves teachers and students Sets rules independently In setting rules
Creating a Safe & Orderly Learning Environment The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Confronts problems quickly and Is tentative and indecisive forcefully Supports teachers with discipline Is unsympathetic to teachers with problems discipline problems
Promoting Collaboration The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Encourages teamwork and Allows teachers to function collaborative efforts independently Gives faculty a formal role in Excludes teachers from decision decision making making Informally seeks teachers’ ideas Is indifferent to the ideas and and opinions opinions of teachers
Securing Outside Resources The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Is skilled at influencing district Reacts to district decisions decision making about resources Actively seeks resources Is passive about finding resources Assertively recruits the best Follows standard hiring teachers (even from other schools) procedures Allocates money based on goals Makes allocations based on other factors
Linking Home and School The More-Effective Principal The Less-Effective Principal Communicates with parents on a Infrequently communicates with regular basis parents Involves parents in school activities Is more likely to ignore parent participation Establishes programs that promote Fails to facilitate parent-teacher parent-teacher interaction interaction Promotes the school to Does not participate in community community groups groups Provides ways parents can learn Doesn’t about school and help their children
Which qualities of the principal relate to reading achievement? • Principal’s race • Principal’s sex • Number of years as a principal • Number of years as a classroom teacher • Knowledge about reading – Kean et al. (1979), What Works in Reading? (Federal Reserve Bank Study)
What can a Literacy Coach do to compensate for a principal’s shortcomings?