Ignatian Spirituality By Calin Radoi, Andrew Trares
Eastern Orthodox Hesychasm Prayer By Theodore Cherpas By: Ted Cherpas
Catholicism 102 • katholikos - (Greek) universal • kath' holou - on the whole • Term was first used by St. Ignatius of Antioch in his Letter to the Smyrnæans: "Where the bishop is to be seen, there let all his people be; just as wherever Jesus Christ is present, we have the catholic Church • katholike ekklesia - Catholic Church
Catholicism 102 • John Carroll: First bishop of the hierarchy of the United States of America, first Bishop and Archbishop of Baltimore • Catholics cross differently then Eastern Orthodox Christians • Over 10,000 beatified saints out of which 5271 are Patron Saints
What Is Eastern Orthodoxy? • Isn’t that like Jewish or something? • Well, no. • A brief history lesson…
I Believe…In One Holy Catholic And Apostolic Church • In the beginning, there was one Christian Church. • Over the years, sectional rifts grew in the Church • Latin Western Catholicism vs. Greek/Byzantine Eastern Orthodoxy
I Believe…In One Holy Catholic And Apostolic Church • Disputes arose over papal authority and the content of the Nicene Creed • Trinity Doctrine Questions: Does the Holy Spirit proceed from the Father and the Son or just the Father? • Other causes involved were cultural/political tensions growing in the church • The Bottom Line: The Church spilt in 1054. (Ware 43-44).
Who is Ignatius Loyola? (Ignacio (Íñigo) López de Loyola) • December 24 1491 – July 31, 1556 • Basque • Founder and first Superior General of the Society Of Jesus • Compiler of the Spiritual Exercises • Patron saint of Guipúzoca as well as of the Society Of Jesus.
Life of Loyola • Born at the castle of Loyola near Azpeitia, 16 miles southwest of San Sebastian in the Basque province of Guipúzcoa, Spain. • In 1506, Íñigo became a page in the service of a relative, Juan Velázquez de Cuéllar, treasurer (contador mayor) of the kingdom of Castile.
Life of Loyola • In 1517, Íñigo took service in the army, defending the small town of Pamplona against the recently expelled (1512) Navarrese monarchy • One leg wounded, the other broken by a cannonball, Ignatius was returned to his castle by the Navarrese.
Now that we have an idea of where St. Ignatius came from, let’s talk about the spiritual practices of the Orthodox Church
The Efche (The Prayer) • Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy upon me a sinner. • Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy upon us sinners. • Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy upon [that guy over there.] • -Now Repeat- • -A lot- • -That’s the whole thing-
Are You Serious? • In a word…yes. • To the average person, Hesychasm prayer may seem dull, tedious, and pointless to put it politely. • Yet the Orthodox Church firmly believes that continuous recitation of this prayer leads to powerful spiritual development (Rossi Online). • For all you non-believers, let’s talk about Kyriacos Markides…
Kyriacos Markides • Markides was a Greek Orthodox believer who came to the U.S. to become a sociologist. • During his studies, he eventually renounced his religion and became an agnostic. • Later on, a colleague exposed him to Indian traditions of yoga.
Kyriacos Markides • After experiencing the power of yoga, he returned to Greece to see if his previous conclusions about Eastern Orthodoxy were wrong too (Markides 2-3). • He was allowed to spend time on Mount Athos, a holy mountain of Orthodox monks who devote their lives to finding God (Markides 5). • While on Mt. Athos, he learned about Elder Paisios…
Elder Paisios • Elder Paisios was a modern living saint. • In The Mountain of Silence, Markides recorded many accounts of Elder Paisios’ abilities including healing terminally ill people without ever seeing them. • Paisios was said to have the ability of bi-location (be at two places at once) although Paisios himself denied this. • Paisios was able to communicate with animals and even befriend them.
Elder Paisios • Paisios reported to frequently be subject to visits from other saints who had already passed on, the Mother of God, and Christ himself appeared to Paisios on occasion (and spoke to him.) • During Desert Storm, Paisios locked himself in his cell and prayed so the conflict would not escalate out of control. Markides asked if Paisios’ prayer really affected the outcome of the war. Markides’ spiritual advisor (not Paisios) scolded Markides for asking such a stupid question. “Do you really think Paisios would waste his time if it didn’t work?”
Elder Paisios • The most extreme display of Paisios’ power came upon the death of a young, sinful monk. The monk’s elder begged Paisios to pray with him for the salvation of his pupil’s condemned soul. Paisios agreed and together they prayed for the pupil’s salvation. Hearing their prayers, God gave them ability to pull the monk out of Hell and send him to Heaven (which they did). The monk’s elder praised Paisios for his spiritual ability, although Paisios demanded that all credit be given to God.
Jesuits:Who are they, what do they do? • Society created to fight the Reformation with knowledge. • Regimini militantis ecclesiae - was the papal bull promulgated by Pope Paul III on September 27, 1540, which gave final approval to the formation of the Society of Jesus. • Ignatius Loyola had made his way to Rome in October, 1538, to have the pope approve the constitution of his new order.
Jesuits: Who are they, what do they do? • Saint Francis Borgia, depicted performing an exorcism, served as the third Superior General.
How Does The Prayer Work? • The concept comes from St. Paul’s command for incessant prayer. • The power of the prayer rests on the actual name of Christ. In Biblical times, to know someone’ name was to have power over them. Through the Incarnation, Jesus gave us access to the divine by taking on a name. • The sacred time of the prayer transforms every other moment of the day into sacred time as well.
Practice of Hesychasm • The Key is repetition with meaning (Savin 239-240). • Meaning is defined as “spiritual humility” which is defined as making sure you focus on Christ and not on your own spiritual condition. • Prayer should be continuous, as automatic as breathing, but simultaneously as meaningful as any other kind of meditation. It will eventually lead a person to peace and “inner grace” (Rossi Online).
Practice of Hesychasm • Beginners usually consult a spiritual father and set aside special times for prayer. • Generally, a komboschini, or prayer rope, is used to maintain consistency. However, it is by no means required (Markides 201). • Ideally, reciting of the prayer will eventually be internalized so it becomes second nature (Markides 194). • The key is saying the prayer sincerely (Tsichils Online).
Principles and Foundations • Human beings are created to praise, reverence and serve God our Lord, and by means of this to save their souls. • The other things on the face of the earth are created for human beings, to help them toward the end for which they are created. • From this it follows that I should use these things to the extent that they help me toward my end, and rid myself of them to the extent that they hinder me.
Principles and Foundations Part 2 • To do this, I must make myself indifferent* to all created things, in regard to everything that is left to my freedom of will and is not forbidden. Consequently, on my own part, I ought not to seek health rather than sickness, wealth rather than poverty, honor rather than dishonor, a long life rather than a short one, and so on in all other matters. • I ought to desire and elect only the thing which is more conducive to the end for which I am created.
Ignatian Spiritual Exercises • Start every time with a prayer thanking God for your inspiration. • Read a passage from the Holy Bible. • Reflect on that passage, but think on it as though it was not religious, but a part of your daily life. • Spend some time thinking about it. • Close with a prayer thanking God for giving you the time to do the exercise.
Ignatian Spiritual Exercises(The Director) • Much like other religious practices, the exercises are supposed to be not led, but shared with a certain person. • A spiritual director is someone who you talk to after reflecting on a week’s worth of exercises.
Bibliography • http://www.bc.edu/offices/mission/exploring/catholicism/mcbrien_intro/ • http://bogners.typepad.com/church/2004/05/principles_and_.html • http://www.catholic-forum.com/SAINTS/indexsnt.htm • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://images.amazon.com/images/P/0829419799.01.LZZZZZZZ.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0829419799&h=475&w=307&sz=35&hl=en&start=12&tbnid=Z0d-b1XmrC3j4M:&tbnh=129&tbnw=83&prev=/images%3Fq%3DIgnatian%2BSpiritual%2BExercises%2B%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26safe%3Doff%26sa%3DG
Bibliography • Markides, Kyriacos. The Mountain of Silence. New York: Image, 2002. • Rossi, Albert. “Saying the Jesus Prayer.” 2006. Accessed 12 October 2006. <http://www.svots.edu/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=140&Itemid=116#up> • Savin, Olga. The Way of the Pilgrim. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 2001. • Tsichils, Steven. “The Jesus Prayer.” 2003. Accessed 12 October 2006. <http://www.goarch.org/print/en/ourfaith/article7104.ASP> • Ware, Timothy. The Orthodox Church. London, England: Penguin Books, 1997. •  Doctor Rossi is a professor at St. Vladimir’s Seminary. •  Steven Tsichils is involved with the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Pittsburgh.