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Introduction to Research Chapter 1

Introduction to Research Chapter 1

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Introduction to Research Chapter 1

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  1. Introduction to ResearchChapter 1 KNES 510 Research Methods in Kinesiology

  2. Research and Truth • There is no truth!-Plato's cave • No proof either • Separation of science, philosophy and religion • Religion>science? • Science>religion? • Aristotle, Plato, Socrates • Einstein-dice

  3. Basic Applied

  4. Nature of Research • Systematic – plan, identify, design, collect data, evaluate • Logical – examine procedures to evaluate conclusions • Empirical – decisions are based on data (observation) • Reductive – general relationships are established from data • Replicable – actions are recorded

  5. Unscientific Methods of Problem Solving • Tenacity • Intuition • Authority • The rationalistic method • The empirical method

  6. Scientific Method of Problem Solving • Step 1: develop the problem (define and delimit it) • identify independent and dependent variables • Step 2: formulate the hypotheses • the anticipated outcome • Step 3: gather data • maximize internal and external validity • Step 4(5): analyze and interpret results

  7. Variables in Experimental Studies • Independent variable • Variable that is manipulated (treatment is administered; has levels) • Dependent variable • What you measure. (effect of the independent variable) • Simplest study has one independent variable and one dependent variable

  8. Variables in Experimental Studies, cont’d • Effect of Isocaloric CHO vs. CHO-Pro Supplements on Time-to-Exhaustion (Kristy L. Richardson, Master’s thesis, CSUF) • A 2 x 2, time (first test to exhaustion, second test to exhaustion) x supplement (CHO vs. CHO-Pro), repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the difference in time-to-exhaustion

  9. Applied Research • MontoyaBS, Brown LE, Coburn JW, Zinder SM. Effect of warm-up with different weighted bats on normal baseball bat velocity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(5):1566-1569, 2009. • Step 1: develop the problem • identify independent and dependent variables • Step 2: formulate the hypotheses • the anticipated outcome • Step 3: gather data • maximize internal and external validity • Step 4(5): analyze and interpret results

  10. Basic vs. Applied Research • Basic research – type of research that may have limited direct application but in which the researcher has careful control of the conditions • Applied research – type of research that has direct value to practitioners but in which the researcher has limited control over the research setting

  11. Continuum of Basic vs. Applied Research • Level I—Basic research • Goal: Theory-driven • Approach: Laboratory • Level II—Moderate relevance • Goal: Theory-based using relevant movements • Approach: Similar to real-world task or setting • Level III—Applied research • Goal: Immediate solutions • Approach: Real-world settings

  12. Experimental vs. Non-experimental Research • Experimental research • Treatments are given to subjects • Cause-and-effect questions • Non-experimental research • Treatments are not given to subjects • Participants are observed as they naturally exist

  13. Experimental vs. Causal-Comparative Studies • Researchers may not be able to conduct experimental research due to ethical or legal concerns, etc. • Examples • physical activity and heart disease • anabolic-androgenic steroids and liver cancer

  14. Experimental vs. Causal-Comparative Studies, cont’d • Steps in causal-comparative (ex post facto) studies • Observe and describe some current condition • Look to the past to determine cause(s)

  15. Types of Nonexperimental Research • Causal-comparative • Survey (poll) • Sample vs. census • Case study • Longitudinal • Correlational • Historical

  16. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research • Quantitative – data are gathered such that they can be quantified and subjected to statistical analyses • Qualitative – data are gathered such that they can be analyzed through informed judgment

  17. Quantitative vs. Qualitative

  18. CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of Thesis • Thesis – written product of a systematic study of a significant problem…The finished product evidences originality, critical and independent thinking, appropriate organization and format, and thorough documentation • Creates new knowledge, extends existing knowledge

  19. CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of Thesis • Format of thesis • Five-chapter format • Introduction • Review of Literature • Methods • Results • Discussion • References • Tables and figures

  20. CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of Thesis • Journal format • Similar to traditional format with some differences (i.e., the review of literature is part of the appendices) • Thesis committee – one chairperson and two members • Use of human subjects – requires submission of application to the CSUF Institutional Review Board (IRB) prior to collecting data

  21. CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of Project • Project – disseminates theoretical material for the practitioner or layperson in a given field • Project committee – project chairperson and one committee member • Typically in the form of a manual, brochure, videotape, handbook, etc. • In addition to the project, a written review of literature is required

  22. CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of Thesis and Project • Proposal-intro, summary of lit review, methods and stats (slides) • Defense-same as above with results, discussion, tables and figures

  23. CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of Comp Exam • Comprehensive exam – provides the student with the opportunity to synthesize and articulate the knowledge acquired throughout the graduate education and helps in preparing the student for his or her chosen profession

  24. CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of Comp Exam • The student is required to complete the written comprehensive examination in the major area of academic concentration and minor • The examination will be 3 hoursin length for the major and 1 ½ hours for the minor • The faculty member responsible for the specific section determines the number of questions • One question examining research design and/or statistics is included in the major area

  25. CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of Comp Exam • If all committee members are satisfied with written portion, a 90 minute oral exam is scheduled at least two weeks after the written exams • Further questioning on major/minor areas and statistics/research design

  26. Next Class • Chapter 2 • Get a peer reviewed journal article for your lit review • Print out entire article and attach to synopsis • Write synopsis (one page): • What did they do? • What did they find? • What does it mean?