Organic Chemistry Recognizing the 4 main classes of organic molecules.
Organic Compounds • An organic compound is any compound that contains atoms of the element carbon. • Carbon has 2 electrons in its 1st energy level and 4 electrons in its 2nd energy level.
Carbon • Carbon’s 4 valence electrons form covalent bonds with other carbon atoms, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. • Carbon can share one electron in a single bond, two electrons in a double bond, and even three electrons (triple bond not shown)
Isomers • Butane has the chemical formula C4H10. • Chemical formulas describe the type and number of atoms. • Structural formulas describe the type, number and position of atoms. Butane’s structural formula is seen below. • Isomers have the same chemical formula, but different structural formulas.
Monosaccharide • Here are 3 examples of a monosaccharide • A monosaccharide is a carbohydrate. • These 3 elements are also isomers. • They all have the chemical formula C6H12O6. • The C:H:O ratio for a monosaccharide is 1:2:1.
Glucose: Chain and Ring • Glucose (and other monosaccharide) chains can bend to form a ring.
Disaccharide and Polysaccharide • One monosaccharide can join with another monosaccharide to create a disaccharide like sucrose. • A polysaccharide like cellulose (on the right) is many monosaccharides linked together.
Glycerol and Fats • Glycerol is a key component to many lipids. • Fat, or triglycerol, forms when a glycerol head connects with three fatty acid tails.
Saturated and Unsaturated Fats • Fatty acids can be either saturated or unsaturated. • Saturated fats contain only single bonds between carbons. • Unsaturated fats contain at least one double bond between carbons.
Proteins and Amino Acids • Proteins are the third major family of organic compounds. • Proteins are made by linking amino acids together. • The side chain is a variable group. • There are 20 different variable groups that make 20 different types of amino acid.
Peptide Bonds and Polymers • The bond linking two amino acids together is called a peptide bond. • Protein chains may contain hundreds, even thousands, of amino acids. • These long chains of organic molecules are called polymers.
Nucleic Acids • Nucleic acids are the final class of organic compound. • Nucleic acids are composed of individual nucleotides. • Each nucleotide contains a sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.