Readings 4 Producing and Directing News and Documentaries Legal and Ethical Issues
Producing and Directing • Studio Production • Switchers, Special Effects • Multiple Camera Remotes • Single Film Style Productions
Studio Production • Directors • First job = fill out a facilities request form • Lists dates and times of rehearsals, studio space needed, personnel required, number of cameras, mics, lighting, etc. • Helps anticipate costs. • 4 tape recorded elements not seen by audience: • Color bars = taped for 30 seconds; they are used to set proper color balance and audio and video levels for playback. They help the TVs register correctly on personal screens. • Slate = list the title of program, episode title and number, date, audio format, extra data (ie. closed captioning) • 2 seconds of black = allows time for start up. • At end of production 5 mins. of black with silence is required - generally the closing credits are shown then.
8 studio hand signals: • Stand by • You’re on • To this camera • Come Closer • Four Mins. • Wrap it up - hurry. • On time. • No time left.
On Camera Talent Issues • Make up = now days don’t use too much - just enough to hit facial defects, chin clefts, etc. • Hair = wary of stray hairs, oils and creams, and blond hair (use less backlight) • Jewelry = can be too reflective, and noisy. • Wardrobe = avoid white and bright yellows, Caucasians in dark outfits are tough to pull off, as are dark on dark, striped clothing don’t interact well with cameras, bold patterns are distracting, sequenced and shiny clothing are also distracting.
Switchers and Special Effects • Software based switchers vs. hardware based switchers: • Do the same; trend is moving towards software (hardware ones are more expensive.) • 5 main parts of switchers: • Fader bars • Effects • Wipes • Chroma key (ie. green screen) • Preview Bus • Program Bus • Line out
Multiple Camera Remotes • 10 points on a location survey: • 1. Check available power • 2. Check satellite uplink or microwave path • 3. Sound issues? • 4. Location accommodations for script, talent, and equipment. • 5. Location restrictions? • 6. Contract issues? • 7. Toilet facilities? • 8. Security and first aid issues? • 9. Catering and restaurant issues? • 10. Lighting issues?
Single Film Style Productions • Shot setup: • Cover shot/ master shot = usually a wide shot - however, includes 3 shots(showing the the fill scene or acting area/ shows overall geography of the scene and for bridging jumps in editing. • Do it from 3 different cameras - run through the entire things 3 times (over the shoulder from one area, close up from one area, wide shot from one, etc.) • When planning the shooting sequence of a single cameras production consider the following 4 things: • All shots involving talent starting with the highest paid should be shot close together in time - regardless of script sequence. • All shots at a particular location should be shot at same time. • All shots requiring specific production personnel should be shot at same time. • All shots requiring specialized production equipment should be shot at same time.
News and Documentaries • News and Documentaries • Satellite, Microwave, and OF Links
Interviewing • 6 Do’s and Don’ts • 1.) Do your research! Know as much as possible about the person and the topic. • 2.) Try to quickly put the person at ease. • 3.) Listen to the person's answers! • 4.) Conceal your agreement or disagreement with the source. If you don't you may skew the answers you are getting. Simply look intensely interested in what the person has to say (without nodding or frowning). • 5.) Might be appropriate to give pre-production advice • Explain terms, load a more fitting attire, etc. • 6.) Avoid two-part, or double-barreled questions. Not only is it hard to remember both questions, but they may just answer the question they are most comfortable with.
Twelve Factors in Newsworthiness • Those involved in broadcast news must understand 12 factors that constitute news value, or newsworthiness. • ¤ timeliness • ¤ proximity • ¤ exceptional quality • ¤ possible future impact • ¤ prominence • ¤ conflict • ¤ the number of people involved or affected • ¤ consequence • ¤ human interest • ¤ pathos • ¤ shock value • ¤ titillation component
Satellite, Microwave, and OF Links • Although it's being slowly replaced by fiber optics, especially for transporting TV signals over significant distances, coaxial cable is still the medium of choice for simple video connections and for many CATV (Community Antenna Television) systems. • Newer systems include: • Triax = 3 conductor video cable • RCA = duh. • BNC = looks like coaxial, but has a screw on part • Fiber opics (or OF) = size of a human hair, carry trillions of bits of information every second, low interference, low cost, doesn’t short out in bad weather, light weight, insensitive to temperatures. • Microwave transmission: • can be transmitted along a straight, unobstructed line from a transmitter to a receiver. • Obvious issues = weather, buildings, etc. • Can be mounted on vehicles and other things. • Satellite transmission: • Uplink to satellite and back, covers a footprint area and the signal from the satellite is collected in a dish and directed toward the receiving element, the signal is then amplified thousands of times and fed to a TV receiver.
Legal and Ethical Issues • Legal and Ethical Issues 1 and 2
Legal and Ethical Issues • 6 areas need to be considered when filming: • invasion of privacy • Private vs. public: main way to tell if can access and publish the info = consist of information of a private nature that is deemed offensive to a reasonable person • access restrictions and rights • If an average citizen could have easily witnessed the same thing = then ok. • Private vs. public property • Commercial appropriation = misuse of info • shield law designed to keep courts or judges from forcing news people to reveal confidential sources of information. • libel and slander = The communication to a third party of false and injurious ideas that tend to lower the community's estimation of the person, expose the person to contempt or ridicule, or injure them in their personal, professional, or financial dealings. • Negligence and malice are also other issues here. • staging = the alteration of a scene, or the broadcast or reenactment of a news event, without telling your audience. • copyright = Music, photo illustrations, drawings and published text are copyrighted and cannot be broadcast or reproduced for distribution without clearance or permission from the copyright holder. Under 1998 copyright revisions, copyright now extends for the life of an artist or individual copyright holder, plus 70 years. Copyrights owned by corporations are valid for 95 years. • Fair use act = use for research, teaching, and scholarship. • A work is in the public domain when its copyright has expired. • talent and location releases = get them no matter what - come abck to haunt you if you don’t.