EST-200, Cultural Ecology, Review for Final Dr. Betty Faust SUNY ESF
NEW OPTIONS • Ecojustice • Biophysical economics • Sustainable development • Community based conservation work • Alternative livelihoods for rural residents
Biosphere Planning • Parks - natural protected areas - no people? • Commercial, intensive agriculture • sustainable? • Cattle? Pigs? Chickens? • Western Dichotomies - nature vs. culture • Indigenous integration? Cycles?
Urban Planning • Concentrate people • Save nature • Green cities? • Effects on biosphere? • Externalities • sewage • food • water
Seas - world ocean • Over-fishing - modern technologies on boats • Aqua culture - damage to mangroves and reefs • Coral reefs - whitening, sick • Sea turtles, whales - tumors (concentrate contaminants)
Atmosphere • Holes in ozone layer, global warming • Natural variations in climate over time • sunspots • earth orbit • Average global temperature • wind patterns, rainfall • ocean temperatures
Solutions? • Carbon credits - reforesting, protecting • Indigenous knowledge & science • Sustainable management of resources • histories of use • monitoring • compensation to native managers • DECENTRALIZATION
Globalization • National governments vs. local communities and their environment • National governments vs. International organizations - United Nations, World Bank, Global Environmental Facility, International Union for the Conservation of Nature, CITES, Rio, Johannesburg, etc.
Force or Incentives • Wars over resources, ethnicities vs. nations • oil • water • soil • forests • TRAGEDY of the Commons? • Traditions plus • New forms of local administration • Incentives
The Plumed Serpent & $$$ • Stages • traditional way of life, how we do things • progress, buying new things, learning new ways • assessment • what have we lost?
Losses • Social \ • teen-agers, alcohol, drugs, rape, pregnancies • wife beating, violent fights, alcoholism • divorces, children suffering, grandparents as buffer • moving out, searching for jobs - lack of local resources, poor prices for products
LOSSES • Resources - ecosystem services • timber, animals - for sale • wood for household use, furniture, building • rainfall patterns affected by deforestation • soil gradually declining in fertility • smaller yards for producing food - pop. growth • few animals to hunt
Cognitive-symbolic losses • Ritual symbolism • New - media images, political slogans • Earth as island floating in space • Slogans - Thing globally, act locally • Old - Plumed serpent in ritual context • order of time and space, sex-gender, generations, fertility of soil and humans • connections, cycles, living lightly
Recommendation • Working with the elders to rescue the local eco-history, traditional management strategies, knowledge of ecosystem, weather cycles, etc. • Documenting the new elements • Analyzing what information they need about long term consequences, alternatives. 7
ACTIONS • Visits to other communities, seeing is believing what can happen • Trying alternatives with them • Teaching monitoring skills • Educating leaders & community with AV materials • Livelihood protection - alternatives