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SPEAKING ASSESSMENT

SPEAKING ASSESSMENT

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SPEAKING ASSESSMENT

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  1. SPEAKING ASSESSMENT Joko Nurkamto UNS Solo

  2. ISSUES IN ASSESSING SPEAKING • Language proficiency versus speaking proficiency • The issue of interactivity • The issue of creating authentic conditions for speech testing • The issue of spoken genre and testing • Integrated versus discrete skills testing • The criteria for tests of speaking

  3. LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY VERSUS SPEAKING PROFICIENCY In a naturally occurring spontaneous speech, interlocutors do not focus on the mechanics of their interaction but on the ideas, emotions, or information being conveyed. In a language testing, a strong focus tends to be put on the samples of language used in relation to pre-decided criteria.

  4. THE ISSUE OF INTERACTIVITY In an interactive speech, whether a candidate is asked to interact with an examiner or with another student, it is extremely hard to eliminate the effect of one speaker on another. This is in part due to the fact that good oral communication is founded on one speaker actually having an effect on another, and on the reactions and responses which take place between interlocutors.

  5. THE ISSUE OF CREATING AUTHENTIC CONDITIONS FOR SPEECH TESTING In implementing test methods, examiners must take into account their effects on the nature of discourse of responses. The challenge is to consider how test methods can be manipulated to engage features of natural spoken discourse. ... The relationship between the input and the expected response should be reciprocal; that is, the speaker’s message should have the capability of reducing uncertainty in the listener, which in turn will allow the listener to fashion a massage in response that reflects the change in information.

  6. THE ISSUE OF SPOKEN GENRES AND TESTING Field-specific oral tests relate to the testing of speech genres. … Some professional contexts require very specific oral language use (for example, air traffic control and doctor-patient encounters) and tests can be designed to assess the test takers ability to communicate in relation to typical language of these target genres.

  7. INTEGRATED VERSUS DISCRETE SKILLS TESTING Listening and speaking are theoretically and practically very difficult to separate. Serious consideration should be given to integrate them methodologically. That is, we should consider an oral/aural skill test, where the test taker uses his or her communicative language ability to produce and comprehend meanings in a variety of tasks and receives a single score reflecting the performance.

  8. THE CRITERIA FOR TESTS OF SPEAKING • International English Language Testing System (IELTS) • Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE) • Certificates in English Language Skills (CELS)

  9. IELTS • Fluency and coherence • Lexical resource • Grammatical range and accuracy • Pronunciation

  10. FLUENCY AND COHERENCE (IELTS) • It refers to the ability to talk with normal levels of continuity, rate and effort and to link ideas and language together to form coherent, connected speech. • The key indicators of fluency are speech rate and speech continuity. • The key indicators of coherence are logical sequencing of sentences, clear marking of stages in a discussion, narration or argument, and the use of cohesive devices within and between sentences.

  11. LEXICAL RESOURCE (IELTS) • It refers to the range of vocabulary the candidate can use and the precision with which meanings and attitudes can be expressed. • The key indicators are the variety of words used, the adequacy and appropriacy of the words used and the ability to circumlocute with or without noticeable hesitation.

  12. GRAMMATICAL RANGE AND ACCURACY (IELTS) • It refers to the range and accurate and appropriate use of the candidate’s grammatical resource. • The key indicators of grammatical range are the length and complexity of the spoken sentences, the appropriate use of subordinate clauses, and the range of sentence structure. • The key indicators of grammatical accuracy are the number of grammatical errors in a given amount of speech and the communicative effect of error.

  13. PRONUNCIATION (IELTS) • It refers to the ability to produce comprehensible speech to fulfill the speaking test requirements. • The key indicators are the amount of strain caused to the listener, the amount of the speech which is unintelligible and the noticeability of L1 influence.

  14. CPE • Discourse management • Lexical resource • Grammatical resource • Pronunciation • Interactive communication

  15. DISCOURSE MANAGEMENT (CPE) It refers to the ability to link utterances together to form coherent monologue and contribution to dialogue. The utterances should be relevant to the tasks and to preceding utterances in the discourse. The discourse produced should be at a level of complexity appropriate to CPE level and the utterances should be arranged logically to develop the themes or arguments required by the tasks.

  16. LEXICAL RESORCE (CPE) It refers to the candidate’s ability to use a wide and appropriate range of vocabulary to meet task requirements. At CPE level the tasks require candidates to express precise meaning, attitudes and options and to be able to convey abstract ideas.

  17. GRAMMATICAL RESORCE (CPE) It refers to the accurate application of grammar rules and the effective arrangement of words in utterances. At CPE level a wide range of structures should be used appropriately and competently.

  18. PRONUNCIATION (CPE) It refers to the ability to produce easily comprehensible utterances. Articulation of individual sounds is not required to be native speaker-like but should be sufficiently clear for all words to be easily understood. An acceptable rhythm of connected speech should be achieved by the appropriate use of strong and weak syllables, the smooth linking of words and the effective highlighting of information-bearing words. Intonation should be used effectively to convey meaning.

  19. INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION (CPE) It refers to the ability to take an active part in the development of the discourse, showing sensitivity to turn taking and without undue hesitation. It requires the ability to participate competently in the range of interactive situation in the test and to develop discussion on a range of topics by initiating and responding appropriately. It also refers to the deployment of strategies to maintain and repair interaction at an appropriate level throughout the test.

  20. CELS • Discourse management • Grammar and vocabulary • Pronunciation • Interactive communication

  21. THANK YOU