Swiss / International • In the 1950s a new graphic design style emerged in Switzerland it would become a predominant graphic style in by the '70s. • Because of its strong reliance on typographic elements, the new style came to be known as the International Typographic Style.
Swiss International Style • Revolutionized graphic design • Began to experiment with typography and photomontage • Realized such success in large part because of the Swiss government
International Typographic Style • After World War II, designers in Switzerland and Germany codified Modernist graphic design into a cohesive movement called Swiss Design, or the International Typographic Style. These designers sought a neutral and objective approach that emphasized rational planning and de-emphasized the subjective, or individual, expression.
Swiss International Style • Emphasized cleanliness, readability, and objectivity • Hallmarks of the style are asymmetric layouts, use of a grid, and flush left, ragged right text. • The style work featured typography as a primary design element in the addition to its use in text, and it is for this that the style was named.
What was created and why was it. Designers sought out a neutral approach that emphasized rational planning and turned away from individual expression Designers preferred photography Created asymmetrical layouts, and embraced the prewar designers’ preference for sans-serif typefaces
Characteristics of the Swiss International Style • 1) the use of a mathematical grid to provide an overall orderly and unified structure; • 2) sans serif typefaces (especially Helvetica, introduced in 1961) in a flush left and ragged right format; and • 3) black and white photography in place of drawn illustration. The overall impression was simple and rational, tightly structured and serious, clear and objective, and harmonious.
Design Schools • Ernst Keller, of the Zurich School of Arts and Crafts, created a model that would become the core of the Swiss School's experiments. At the Zurich School of Design before WWII, the principles of the Bauhaus and Jan Tschichold's New Typography were taught to people like Joseph Muller-Brockmann and Armin Hofmann. • Joseph Muller-Brockmann would go on the run the Zurich School after Keller and Armin Hofman and Emil Ruder would run a school in Basel both schools still taught the principles of the Bauhaus and Jan Tschichold's just as they had learned.
Zurich School of Design • The ZHW came into being in 1998 through the merger of the Winterthur Polytechnic, the School of Economics and Business Administration Winterthur and the Zurich School for Translation and Interpretation. • The School of Design is not only rich in tradition, but is also one of the largest and most innovative educational institutions of its kind in the Swiss university of applied sciences landscape.
Basel School of Design • The Basel School of Design and its students have influenced the international Graphic • Design community since the 1960’s. Under the direction of Armin Hofmann and • Emil Ruder courses for Graphic Design and Typography were developed. They were • outstanding models for a modernist design education. • This University level institute is officially called the “The Basel School of Design” and forms together with seven other Design-and Art oriented Institutes the Academy of Art and Design Basel (HGK Basel) as a • Department of the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland • (FHNW).
Armin Hofmann He was also an influential educator and in 1965 he wrote the Graphic Design Manual a popular textbook in the field. Die Gute Form, 1954
Josef Muller-Brockmann After the war continued to work as a designer, concentrating on exhibition design and illustration. He worked as a set designer for various theatres in Switzerland and abroad. Juni-Festwochen - June 21, 1955
Josef Muller-Brockmann Founded the magazine "New Graphic Design" with Richard Paul Lohse, Hans Neuburg and Carlo Vivarelli. Opernhaus Zurich - Furst Igor, 1968
Josef Muller-Brockmann In 1987 he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Canton of Zurich and won the Brunel Award. Akari (Lamp Exhibit), 1975
Karl Gerstner Karl Gerstner is one of Switzerland's preeminent graphic designers. In 1959, he and Markus Kutter founded the agency Gerstner + Kutter, Auch du bist liberal (You too are a liberal), 1959
Hans Neuberg Konstruktive Grafik, 1958
A Porettl La Vie est un songe, 1961
Ludwieg mies van der Rohe (1886-1969) • He was born in Aachen, Germany, on march 27, 1886. • After training with his father, a master stonemason he moved to berlin, where he worked for Bruno Paul. • In 1908 he began working for the architect Peter Behrens and he studied the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright. • In 1927 he designed the barcelona pavilion and the pavilion has become a key reference point in both the career of mies van der rohe and 20th-century architecture as a whole. The pavilion has not only been exhaustively studied and interpreted, but it has also been a source of inspiration for the work of several generations of architects all over the world.
Massimo Vignelli • Massimo Vignelli, born in milan, he studied architecture in milan and venice. • He has a spare, essential, intellectually elegant, strong and timeless style.
Josef Muller-Brockmann • Swiss graphic designer and teacher • Studied architecture
Bibliography 1. 11 Oct. 2007 <http://www.artandculture.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/ACLive.woa/wa/movement?id=351>. 2. 14 Oct. 2007 <http://www.internationalposter.com/style_primer/international-typographic.aspx>. 3. 17 Oct. 2007 <http://www.designboom.com/eng/interview/vignelli.html>. 4. 20 Oct. 2007 <http://www.zhwin.ch/en/departement-a/>. 5. 9 Oct. 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-242773/graphic-design>.