The Essenes • WHO: • Strict Jewish sect • 1st century BCE – 68 CE • messianic • WHERE • Qumran, Jerusalem, throughout Israel
The Essenes & the Dead Sea Scrolls • WHY IMPORTANT • Oldest known biblical manuscripts • Significant firsthand glimpse into a 1st century BCE & 1st century CE Jewish community • OTHER JEWISH GROUPS besides the Essenes • Sadducees • Pharisees – forerunners of the rabbis • Zealots • (1st century CE) Jesus and his first followers
Qumran - Views The watchtower Looking south, along the shores of the Dead Sea, towards Masada
Qumran Views – Writing room inkwells “the Scriptorium” or Writing Room
BCE CE 150 60 1 68 70 1. Originated here? After Antiochus Epiphanes’ persecution 68 Qumran destroyed 70 Jerusalem destroyed 3. Originated here? Reign of Queen Salome 2. Originated earlier? 5 BCE – 30 CE: Jesus 30 – 62 CE: James Mid 30’s – mid 60’s: Paul 70 – Destruction of Jerusalem After 70: rabbinic Judaism After 70: first gospels
The Teacher of Righteousness • Led by the Teacher of Righteousness • A community of priests, laypeople • Went into the wilderness Violent men have sought my life Because I have clung to Thy Covenant. I thank Thee, O Lord, For Thou hast fastened Thine eye upon me. Thou has saved me from the zeal Of lying interpreters, And from the congregation of those Who seek smooth things.
A few facts • The community existed for almost 200 years • In 68 CE, Qumran destroyed, along with all its inhabitants. • Prior to the Roman conquest, they deposited their scrolls in jars and hid them in caves. • These were discovered in 1947, 1948. • Over 800 scrolls have been found. • First scholars to work on the scrolls were Christian, largely Roman Catholic
A Sensational Find The Dead Sea Scrolls – The most important biblical archeological find of the 20th century
Why all the excitement ?? Jewish Christian Earliest biblical manuscripts New Jewish writings No writings from other groups -- except Philo – 1st century CE Josephus – 70/80 CE Talmud – 2nd century reflecting earlier traditions Messianic Jewish community Led by an inspired teacher Strict Torah-observance Purification ritual Meal of bread and wine Terminology – Community of the Way; New Covenant
3. WHY DID THEY FORM THIS COMMUNITY?
Why? ? • To create a congregation of the righteous • To be ready for God’s messianic kingdom • World is evil – worst time in human history • God has to intervene soon to create a better world
What did they Expect Would Happen? • Restoration of the Davidic monarchy • Jerusalem will be the pre-eminent city • Israel the pre-eminent state • Rule of the righteous • Righteous will triumph – eternal life • Righteous dead will be resurrected • The unrighteous will be killed – eternal death
What did they Expect Would Happen? • Universal implications • God will be worshipped by all humanity • Universal peace • ….and best of all … Eternal life for the righteous
How would this come about? • They were actively preparing for such a world “In the wilderness, prepare the way of the Lord, make straight in the desert a highway for our God” (Isaiah 40:3)
How would this come about ? • Some thought God would do it directly. ZAP! • Others thought that a “messiah” would help God achieve this new state of affairs So… What’s a messiah?
What’s a Messiah? A Messiah is a human being who appears at the end time, when God recreates the world. becomes the Davidic king over a restored Israel assists God in eliminating all the unrighteous people and rulers, rewarding the righteous with eternal life. • In sum, a messiah is a world-transformer • It will be a time of unparalleled peace.
4. HOW WERE THE SCROLLS DISCOVERED?
5. WHAT DO THE SCROLLS SAY?
The Scrolls • Books of the Hebrew Bible – except Esther – OLDEST BIBLICAL MANUSCRIPTS • Own writings: • Community Rule • Copper Scroll • Temple Scroll • War Scroll • Hymns • Messianic texts • Damascus Scroll
From the Community Rule What awaits the righteous… …It shall be healing, great peace in a long life, and fruitfulness, together with every everlasting blessing and eternal joy in life without end, a crown of glory and a garment of majesty in unending light.
From the War Scroll • This shall be a time of salvation for the people of God, an age of dominion for all the members of His company and everlasting destruction for all the company of Belial [=Satan]…The dominion of the Kittim [=Romans] shall come to an end and iniquity shall be vanished, leaving no remnant; for the sons of darkness there shall be no escape. • The sons of righteousness shall shine over all the ends of the earth; they shall go on shining until all the seasons of darkness are consumed and, at the season appointed by God, His exalted greatness shall shine eternally to the peace, blessing, glory, joy, and long life of all the sons of light.
From the Copper Scroll • In the vale of Achor under the stairs which go eastwards 40 cubits, a box filled with silver weighing in all 17 talents • In the tomb of …the third, 100 gold bars. • In the great cistern which is in the courtyard of the little colonnade, at its very bottom, closed with sediment, 900 talents. • In the cistern of the esplanade which is under the stairs, 42 talents • In the cave of the old Washer’s House, on the third platform, 65 gold bars.
From the Thanksgiving Psalms Violent men have sought my life Because I have clung to Thy Covenant. I thank Thee, O Lord, For Thou hast fastened Thine eye upon me. Thou has saved me from the zeal Of lying interpreters, And from the congregation of those Who seek smooth things.
From Psalms attached to the Community Rule My eyes have gazed On that which is eternal, On wisdom concealed from men On knowledge and wise design Hidden from the sons of men
Significant Similarities Jesus’ First Followers DSS Community Messianic Torah-observant Inspired teacher: Jesus Baptism Communal meal Opponents Paul Sadducees/Temple priests Messianic Torah-observant Inspired teacher: the Teacher of Righteousness Water ritual – purification Communal meal Opponents The Liar Sadducees/Temple priests
Why Important? Oldest manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible • First-hand Glimpse into 1st century Judaism • 1st Century BCE & 1st century CE • Helps us understand Jesus’ First Followers in Jerusalem • who shared many of their beliefs and practices
York at Qumran Barrie lecturing at Qumran to 29 York/Atkinson Students - 2001